Introduction There were three bacteria that were studied during this experiment. Staphylococcus is a type of bacteria that is often found on the body of human beings and animals. It is found on the skin and hair as well as in the noses and throats. Staphylococcus can cause food poisoning when it is exposed to food and contaminated because the food is not properly refrigerated. (Food Safety) These bacteria are Gram-positive with a spherical shape that often group into clusters, much like grapes.
There is also a small inverted tube that is placed inside of the tube which indicates whether gas was produced. Both tubes of glucose and lactose turned yellow as well as producing gas bubbles. The bacterium was also tested to determine whether the bacterium could catabolize the amino acid tryptophan. To determine whether the bacterium can catabolize tryptophan a broth tube was inoculated with the unknown and cultured, and then Kovac’s reagent was added to the tube. The tube with the unknown turned red which is a positive indicator that the unknown is able to catabolize tryptophan.
Amylase can be found in different types of industry. Detergent is one of the industry that Amylase is used. Amylase is use in detergent industry to breakdown(remove) the variable stain on the cloth from food that includes starch in it. The production of Amylase that contained in detergent is produce from the ‘Bacillus spp’(Bacteria) that produced from others living thing (Human and animal). Amylase in detergent industry substrate is the polysaccharide (Starch/Carbohydrate) (bread, cereal, pasta, rich, potato and etc..) into disaccharide (Sugar/Maltose).
There are number of lactic acid which is a form of bacteria which is a large group of beneficial bacteria used in certain foods while they are getting prepared such as yogurt, cheese, sour cream, butter milk and other type of fermented milk products. Things such as vinegars are produced by bacterial acetic acid fermentation. Yeast is also major use in the making of beer and wine and also for the leaving of breads. This also involves fermentations to convert corn and other vegetable carbohydrates to also make beer, wine or gasohol but also bacteria is the agents of are other foods. Other fermented foods will include things such as soy sauce, olives and cocoa.
MAC agar contains peptone, crystal violet, pH indicator, lactose and bile salt (Sumbali and Mehrotra, 2009). Peptone is a source of protein for microorganism growth. Crystal violet and bile salt are the inhibitory agents that suppress the growth of Gram positive bacteria but support most of the enterococci Gram negative bacteria (Sumbali and Mehrotra, 2009). Thus, the results illustrated that B. megaterium which is a Gram positive bacterium cannot grew on the plate. On the other hand, E.coli and P. vulgaris formed colonies on the plate.
In another study food grade carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and SPI blend fruitfully employed to fabricate novel edible cast films . The XRD investigated reveals that SPI anc CMC are extremely compatible, and addition of glycerol reduces the crystallinity of CMC/SPI blends. Researchers have tried to advance the properties of soy protein films that have major potential applications in the food and packaging industry [105-107]. It is estimated that in the U.S., about 25000 to 50000 metric tons of soy proteins are used in paper coatings . It is found that SPI coated paper act as gas and oil barrier as well as have adequate mechanical properties, for extending the shelf life of food products .
Introduction BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Mold is a type of microscopic fungi. The growth of mold can be useful in the production of numerous antibiotics, foods (such as cheese, soy sauce and others), enzymes and beverage but they can also be harmful to humans and some other food. Mold derives the energy to survive from organic matter on which they live. This is the reason why mold causes decomposition in organic matter. Bread molds grow quickly at a temperature between 15°C to 30°C.
Two spot plates were placed on a napkin that has pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Three groups tested fungal amylase which is Alpha-amylase Aspergillus Oryzae and two groups tested mammal amylase which is Alpha-amylase from Porcine pancreas. Six test tubes were labeled with different pH and enzyme source Mammal or Fungal Amylase. Add 1.5ml of starch and 1ml of the pH buffer solution to each test tube. Another six test tubes were labeled with different pH and enzyme source Mammal or Fungal Amylase.
The bacterium is associated with raw milk, cheeses, (particularly soft varieties) ice cream, raw vegetables, fermented raw-meat sausages, raw and cooked poultry, raw meats, and raw and smoked fish. It is capable of growing at temperatures as low as 3°C allowing multiplication in refrigerated foods, making L. monocytogenes infection particularly hard to avoid. The infective dose has not been determined, but is believed to vary with the susceptibility of the individual. It may be less than 1000 bacterium in the immuno-compromised individual. Entry, Multiplication, and Spread: L. monocytogenes initially gains access to the body through the gastrointestinal tract but is capable of infecting the blood through monocytes, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The microbe entire margins and convex elevations. The microbe appears to be circular and abut 0.4-0.7 micro meter in diameter. Crystal violet, iodine, alcohol and safranin were used to determine the gram stain of unknown #79 as a gram positive bacteria. Under a microscope with 100x oil lens, the microbe was viewed as a coccus shaped and formed clusters. The bacteria motility was detected by growing the bacteria in a special kind of nutrient agar, the test was done in a tube deep containing motility medium.