Cone and Wilmore proposed ideas of Black Theology. I believe that their theories show how African-Americans can gain their own identity through their own practices of religion and culture. I believe that the greatest struggle of African-Americans in a racist society is the struggle to regain collective identity and culture. However, they show how it is very possible to rise above racial discrimination, and stereotypes. Although Albert Raboteau was not necessarily a theologian, his claims of slaves finding their own way of life despite being dehumanized, easily relate to the ideas of Cone and Wilmore.
White Christians saw god as more of a spiritual savior, the reflection of God for blacks came in the struggle for freedom by blacks. Although the term black liberation theology is a fairly new, becoming popular in the early 1960’s with Black Theology and Black Power, a book written by James H. Cone, its ideas are pretty old, which can be clearly seen in spirituals sang by Africans during the time of slavery nearly 400 years ago.# It was through these hymns that black liberation spawned. Although Cone is given credit for “the discovery of black liberation theology,” it’s beliefs can quite clearly be seen in the efforts of men like preacher Nat Turner and his rebellion of slavery in mid 1800’s or Marcus Garvey, one of the first men to “see god through black spectacles” in the early 1900’s. More recently black theology emerged as a formal discipline. Beginning with the "black power" movement in 1966, black clergy in many major denominations began to reassess the relationship of the Christian church to the black community.
As time went on “Voodoo had become less of a religion than a political association [which was] and inherent characteristic of black religion from the slave period” (46). This happened not only in America, but in Haiti as well. This not only highlights the evolution of Vodun from religion, to a political force, but also the adaptability of Vodun as well. Frazier is undermined because Vodun was the starting point of black religion in America, not white influence on pre-existing religions. While it is true that accommodations may have been made, Vodun had become the “spiritual force that could not be separated from the people's yearning for liberation” because of its ability to adapt, help slaves cope, and evolve over time (45).
The black man’s response to God’s act in Christ must be different from the whites because his life experiences are different, Dr. Cone believes. In the “black experience,” the author suggested that a powerful message of biblical theology is liberation from oppression. Other theologians have also noted that African Americans require a different approach to counseling and healing. In Liberation and Human Wholeness: The Conversion Experiences of Black People in Slavery and Freedom, Dr. Edward P. Wimberly and his wife, Anne Streaty Wimberly, focused on the history of slavery and the wholeness of African Americans who are struggling with their inner self. In addition to the book, Dr. Wimberly created a workshop and seminar to help pastors and community leaders help African Americans who were once slaves.
It shows how religion serves two main purposes during this time. It is used to justify slavery and later, to use it against it. Slave owners would take passages from the bible and interpret it as this was God’s design to own slaves and conform them to Christianity. This was the Christian thing to do according to God’s will. The bible was a powerful tool for slaves and it was often prohibited for Africans to access it.
Douglass’ and Jacobs’ ability to read allowed them to realize their meaning of Christianity and to use their faith in a positive sense and as a powerful weapon against slavery. Christianity during “the era of slavery is not homogenous: it is extremely complex” (Davis, p. 72). Christianity ranged from one extreme to another representing the hypocrisies and horrendous uses of religion. Douglass and Jacobs both paint a striking, and unpleasant, picture of the contradictions in the Christianity of the South. Douglass illustrates how slaveowners used Christianity as one of their main strategies in keeping slaves docile and “their minds starved” to be “shut up in mental darkness” (p. 198).
Black Theology was developed by early theologians because Black people needed something to believe in and give them help in times of need. The idea of Black Th... ... middle of paper ... ...her and to God. Much of the dualism described by Kelly sounds universal. Is there some figment of basic human tendency that divides one’s self from within or without? Works Cited DeOtis Roberts, "Black Theology in the Making," Review and Expositor 70 (Summer 1973):328 Emmanuel McCall, "Black Liberation Theology: A Politics of Freedom," Review and Expositor 73 (Summer 1976):330; cf.
Introduction Many African Americans believed that it is their divine mission to take Christianity to Africa. There have been many African Americans in late 1700s and early 1800s, which traveled to Africa with the sole purposes of evangelizing and establishing churches. Men such as David George, Lott Carey and Colin Teague, where some of the first African Americans who went to Africa to promote Christianity. Their efforts to spread Christianity presented a justification for the inhuman bondage suffered by people of African descent in America.1 In this paper, I will show how African Americans went from being slaves in the United States to being evangelical missionaries to their home country of Africa. A Historian by the name of Albert Raboteau states that those African American missionaries believed, “that God was drawing good out of the evil of slavery by using the American descendents of African slaves to take Christianity to the lands of their ancestors”.2 Early African American Missionary Activity Majority of the first African American missionary activity involved the sending freed Black slaves back to Africa.3 Blacks and Southern land owners, who feared that the freed Blacks would come back to start a revolution, Northern politicians and clergy all thought that the free black slaves would want to go back to their homeland.3 This movement caused a lot of unrest in the African American community about whether or not this was a good idea.5 1.
Slavery is one of the unfortunate practices in America that has been engraved in American history. In early centuries, people who favored or opposed slavery expressed it through literature. Frederick Douglass in his narrative, “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass,” discusses the role of religion, Christianity in particular, which was written in literature known as the bible had two versions: true Christianity and the white Christianity that helped in strengthening slavery. Frederick Douglass is known for being an outstanding orator, but he is mostly acknowledged for being an incredible abolitionist. His work to demolish slavery has been greatly known, detailing his life experience as a slave and expressing his theory on slavery.
A main difference between African and Christian religions, however, is that Africans did not find it necessary to convert all other cultures to their religion. Thus Africans were rather resistant to the preaching of Christian ministers when they came to America. The Christian ideas they did absorb, however, were indoctrinated into their lives with the addition of culture such as gospel music. Later, a minister of mainly of African-American congregations would use distinctly "Black" preaching methods, as when the minister begins to employ numerous stock phrases and ideas, Midway in the message the preacher begins to chant his words rhythmically.