Certain conditions in the body can also promote the growth of cancer cells. One of these is a deficiency of natural killer (NK) cells, which are able to kill cancer cells by creating a pore in the cell membrane with perforin and releasing granzymes into the cell. Low levels of perforin allow for tumor growth 1. Chronic inflammation can also ... ... middle of paper ... ...gens are exogenous (outside the cell) and will be presented to helper T cells to initiate an immune response. This can trigger cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells with the same antigen – often HPV viral proteins in cervical cancer.
One of the recent developments in the research behind oncogenesis and its relationship to cancer is the theory of “oncogenic addiction”. This theory explains the phenomena of “a tumor cell seemingly exhibiting dependence on a single oncogenic pathway or protein for its sustained proliferation and/or survival” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). These findings suggest that there may be a way to “switch off the crucial pathway of dependence”, which in theory should negatively affect or inhibit the cancer, “while sparing normal cells that are not similarly addicted” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). This has been established with the ability to inactivate “counterparts of oncogenic proteins in normal tissues” and see that there is toleration without “obvious consequences” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). This is the concept of “addiction” in cancer, and the dependence on particular genes to activate prolifer... ... middle of paper ... ...need to be developed to begin this study, we can infer from past research the steps in which determination of these relationships could be done.
Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007). Two major apoptotic paths have been defined; death receptor (extrinsic) and mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway and they are usually switched on in a stimulus-dependent manner (Steel, Doherty et al. 2004, Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013).Such that extra-cellular death inducing signals via Fas receptors and various intra cellular signals result in activation of caspases (Du, Fang et al. 2000) (caspase 8 and 9) respectively. Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is widely implicated as a barrier to cancer pathogenesis than extrinsic apoptosis pathway (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011).
Of those treatments the most important one is the use of drugs and is called chemotherapy. • This treatment includes wide group of drugs that have cytotoxic effects mainly on the rapidly dividing cells but not exclusively. So that’s why, it also have unwanted side effects on the life of normal cells in the body of a cancer patient. • The excessively active growth signaling pathways in cancer cells make them susceptible to huge variety of chemotherapeutic drugs whose target is growth signaling molecules and processes involved in cellular expression and replication. • But sometimes, in most of the patients whose cancer cell line was responding to chemotherapy, show a decrease or complete loss of response which results in tumor regrowth leading to cancer drug resistance.
The first stage is increased the proliferation of colon epithelial cells in tumor development. The Single abnormal cell in the proliferative population will benign a small neoplasm. The colonal lead increasing adenomas si... ... middle of paper ... ...s have big impacts on cell signaling and behaviour (Yamada K.M & Cukierman.E,2007). For example, collagen gels can form either loose and dense connective tissue depending on the concentration of collagen. This gels commonly used in studies of fibroblast and tumor cell migration for their signaling.
This causes the surviving cells to multiply and create a whole new colony resistant to that specific drug. Symptoms and Treatments. Cancer signs and symptoms are quite different and depend on where is the cancer located, how deep it has spread, and what is size of the tumor is. Some cancers can be either felt or seen through the skin , such as, a lump on the external lining can be an indicator of cancer in those locations. Other cancer types have signs that have a less physical appearance.
Cancer stem cells are a type of cancer cell that play an intimate role in determining the potential aggressive behavior of cancer. Cancer stem cells have taken the research world by storm, and although heavily debated, could potentially lead to the development of cancer therapies and impact the future of cancer treatment, or even a cure. In order to understand cancer stem cells, one must first understand stem cells in general. The idea of cancer stem cells was proposed over 100 years ago, but has recently become a major focus because of the similarities they share with normal stem cells. The idea of cancer stem cells generated research because sub-components of stem cells have been located in tumors of the breast, brain, and other organs.
Even though many people are affected by cancer today, the abilities which cancer cells own make it hard to find single effective treatment for cancer. The focus of research now lies on developing drugs which target cancer cells in the hope to cure cancer once and for all. There have been extraordinary progresses in identifying cancer at the cellular level and the question of how cancer cells develop are no longer a secret. Although there are many different types of cancer and almost every tissue can turn into malignancies, the basic processes of how cancer arises are very similar. While normal body cells follow the orderly path of cell cycle and only reproduce when instructed to do so, cancer cells violate the schedule and ignore instructions, it fails to follow the orderly enzymatic reaction which is responsible for the deletion of cells with damaged DNA (Kerr et al.
Hodgkin and non Hodgkin Lymphoma When cells in the lymphatic system grow at an abnormal rate, it creates a malignant tumor, Cancer. Hodgkin lymphoma and Non- Hodgkin lymphoma are both cancers that originate in white blood cells, in the lymphatic system. The system is responsible for fighting infection, bacteria, viruses, and removing damaged cells by producing lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell that is important to the immune system; they decide how the immune system will respond to infections or any an familiar organism). The system also communicates with the blood circulatory system by transporting lymph (a clear fluid that carries lymphocytes, waste, and excess fluid from tissues back into the blood system through the thoracic duct.)
But the most promising form of treatment with those is stem cell transplant, which is used in joint with the other therapies. The preexisting leukemia stem cells are first targeted and destroyed before implanting healthy hematopoietic stem cells. These cells will then proliferated and differentiate into white blood cells, used in immune response (Wang & Dick, 2005). In previous studies, there is evidence that suggests that the proliferation, differentiation, and prevention of apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells stems from the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways being active (Montagut & Settleman, 2009). This particular pathways has been associated with most cancers but for prostate cancer, it would be more advantageous to induce the pathway whereas, for blood cancers, the more ideal approach would be to inhibit these pathways.