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After the establishment of the National Front, the presidency would be determined by regular elections every 4 years. The two parties would have parity in all other elective and appointive offices. The 1886 Colombian constitution required that the losing political party be given adequate and equitable participation in the government, but the new 1991 constitution does not have that requirement, although administrations have typically included members of opposition parties. The civilian judiciary is independent of government influence but the intimidation of judges, witnesses, and prosecutors is common. Currently Colombia is a presidential democracy in which the executive holds significant power over the legislature. The legislature is made up of a Senate and a Chamber of Representatives, and members of the Congress are elected every four years in the same year as the president. The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms and is limited to a maximum of two terms. Under the president are the vice president and the Council of Ministers. At the provincial level, power is vested in department governors, municipal mayors, and local administrators. All of these elections are held one year and five months after a presidential election. The third branch of the government, the judicial branch, is headed by a Supreme Court which consists of 23 judges, divided into three chambers (Penal, Civil, and Agrarian). Colombia operates a system of civil law, which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial system. In the past, elections have been an issue because the FARC has a presence in about 1/3 of Colombia, meaning they have much control and prevalence in the country and can shift the favor to whomever they want. In ... ... middle of paper ... ... terms and may be reappointed indefinitely, but congress may remove a judge considered to be unfit. Colombia is divided into judicial districts, each of which has a superior court of three or more judges. These courts supervise the lower courts, which are distributed on a departmental basis. Colombia also has a constitutional court which has the function of interpreting and monitoring the constitutional law and processes. They also oversee cases brought against fundamental rights violations including complaints against acts of the government. Under the superior courts there are regional, administrative, and even first instance courts. Colombia also has a military court in which military personnel and guerilla groups are tried for things like crimes against humanity, but most of the time these courts are ineffective and allow for human rights abuses to go unchecked.

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