The presence of depression disrupts the young person’s maturational development through the detrimental impact it has on social and educational functioning. For example, evidence indicates that major depression slows down some aspects of cognitive development and interferes with the acquisition of verbal skills; which can lead to dropping out of school, (Kovacs, 1989). Moreover, research indicates that in the long-term, depression that reoccurs leads to an increased risk for depressive disorder and dysfunction in adulthood, (Garber, Kriss, Koch, & Lindholm, 1988). Not only is adolescent depression the most significant predictor for adult depression; it also predicts increased risk among females of higher divorce rates and estrangement from parents, while among males there exists increased risk for higher rates of unemployment and car accidents. Both have increased risk for intimacy problems and legal activities (McFarlane, Atchison, Rafalowicz, & Papay, 1994).
Depression in children is qualitatively different from depression in adults – these people are more at risk for more severe illnesses in adulthood, as well, which suggests that depression in young people has the potential to be particularly problematic. 60% of adolescents with depression will have recurrences in adulthood and also have a higher rate of suicide throughout their life (Clark, Jansen, & Cloy, 2012). The symptoms of childhood depression might be mistaken for normal mood swings as pertinent to changing developmental stages, and is often presented as irritability and negative attitudes. Diagnosis of depression in children is difficult for this reason, and therefore it must be stressed how careful one must be when diagnosing mental illness in children (“Depression”, 2014). Furthermore, there is a stigma against labeling a child as depressed, which might make it even harder to diagnose depression in children.
The cause of depression is controversial. Some believe that it is biological and others believe that conditions such as poor social skills contribute to the onset of depression. Many studies show that when paren... ... middle of paper ... ...cks, P., & Prieto-Hicks, X. (2012). The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents.
It is suggested that depression is actually a result of a combination of certain factors, such as biological and psychosocial factors (Kendler 1995, www.surgeongeneral.gov 2004). Most likely, depression is the result of a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain (NYU 2004). Thes... ... middle of paper ... ...ent of pharmacotherapies for clinical depression in children and adolescents. Drug Safety. Jan; 20 (1):59-75.
Researchers Tyler Chapple, and Bersani, (2005) observed that emotional neglect also enhances externalized behavior in children, particularly through violence and distance amongst their peers. This paper will specifically look into the psychological processes of developing social anxiety given the factor of prevalent emotional neglect during the years of childhood. Research Emotional neglect is often times overlooked... ... middle of paper ... ... & IJzendoorn, M. (2013). The neglect of child neglect: A meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(3), 345-355. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0549-y Wark, M., Kruczek, T., & Boley, A.
(10) Barrett, Paula, Healy-Farrell, Lara, March, John. Cognitive-Behavioral Family treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A controlled Trial. Journal of Academic Child Adolescence Psychiatry, 43:1, 46-62. January 2004 (11) The Practitioner, 181-183, March 2002.
Depression in adolescence related to the school transitional period is a common occurrence according to the research findings of Goodwin, Mrug, Borch, & Cillessen, 2012). in fact according to research adolescents is the peek age for onset of depression during this time (1). There are many causes of depression among late to early adolescents. Over the years research has concluded that the most prevalent causes of adolescent depression is , genetics, absence of parental protection, low self-esteem, child abuse (of all types) , faulty interpersonal relationships, and educational transitions. For the purpose of this research we will identify educational transitions from junior high or middle school to high school ,and will later describe how research in solution focused therapies can help alleviate the symptoms of depressions in adolescences during these transitions.
Exposure to Marital Conflict and Violence and Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Effects Exposure to marital conflict and violence is linked with negative emotional and behavioral problems among children. It is well established that the effects are unfortunate in children’s development. Internalizing (emotional) and externalizing (behavioral) symptoms are common for children who come from homes with marital conflict and violence. Along with both symptoms poor academic conduct is also huge issue. Emery (1982, cited in Glaser, Glass, Horne, & Marks, 2001) states conflict that is openly hostile is characterized as the most upsetting.
Family functioning among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(1), 60-67. Wilkinson, G.B., Taylor, P., & Holt, J.R. (2002). Bipolar disorder in adolescence: Diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(4), 348-357.
It is designed to modify the individual’s normative dysfunctional thoughts. The basic cognitive technique consists of delineating the individual's specific misconceptions, distortions, and maladaptive assumptions, and of testing their validity and reasonableness (Beck, 1970). By exploring thought patterns that lead to maladaptive behaviors and actions and the beliefs that direct these thoughts, people with mental illness can alter their thought process to improve coping. CBT is different from oth... ... middle of paper ... ...ntal_Illness/About_Treatments_and_Supports/Cognitive_Behavioral_Therapy1.htm NREPP (2014, January 28). Intervention Summary - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression.