The articles, “What is Cloning” by The Genetic Science Learning Center, “Animal clones: Double Trouble?” by Emily Sohn, and “Cloning advance using stem cells from human adult reopens ethical questions” by Ariana Eunjung Cha, all give insight about what to consider when it comes to cloning. The goal of cloning is to take control of the process of the reproductive system and remove all the bad qualities to make a specific combination of genes for a benefit. Cloning in biology means to propagate an organism or cell as a clone. Moral or unmoral, cloning will continue to be researched and may even be the stepping stone to a completely new life in the
Cloning is a DNA sequence, such as a gene, that is transferred from one organism to another and replicated by genetic engineering techniques. This means to reproduce or propagate asexually and some sexually. Cloning is made when you have several embryos and you try to duplicate them to produce more eggs which is called SCNT. SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) is used so that they can take a piece of DNA from an egg and transfer it to another egg after the nucleus has been eliminated by an ultra violet beam. This technique is really hard to accomplish but can be done by well experienced scientists.
First scientist isolate and egg cell and remove its nucleus. Then they isolate a somatic cell ( a cell in the body that is not the reproductive cell.) and transfer its nucleus into the egg cell. Then using electromagnetic pulses, the egg cell acts like a zygote and is placed in a surrogate mother. The famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was cloned this way.
One type led by researchers at the Human Genome Project entails the copying of genes and parts of chromosomes in order to get enough identical genetic material to do further research, which they believe could help prevent human diseases in the future (Cloning fact sheet). Another type of cloning is called Blastomere separation, also known as twinning. In this case they split an egg (embryo), soon after it has been fertilized which results in two or more embryos, twins, containing the same exact DNA from both parents (Cloning fact sheet). However, Dolly, was cloned from only one parent. To do this, scientists must take an egg, empty out its genetic material, and replace it with genetic material from another animal by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (Cloning fact sheet).
Cloning is the copy of a biological entity; such as a gene, a cell, or an entire organism. Human cloning is defined by the American Medical Association (AMA) as the production of genetically identical organisms via the somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning human beings requires the DNA or the genes of the person to be copied and then a duplicate is genetically created. There are two types of human cloning. There is therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.
Gen e cloning involves producing identical copies of DNA. Reproductive cloning produces an entire identical copy of another organism. In therapeutic cloning, human embryos are cloned in order to produce stem cells that could be used for research in experiments aimed at creating replacement tissues. While of these techniques involves cloning, they serve a different purpose (National Human Genome Research Institute , 2014). For instance, reproductive cloning is mainly used to create clones of an entire animal.
“They then transfer the DNA of the donor animal’s somatic cells into an egg cell or oocyte it has its own DNA containing nucleus removed. With other animals the main experiment conducted in order to clone is splitting embryos in test tubes. Then they implant the results in embryos into the wombs of the adult animal” (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). For many years the controversy of human cloning still seems to... ... middle of paper ... ...tionship between stem cells and cancer cells needs to be more clearly understood if stem cells are to be used to treat human disease (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). There can be a huge advantage for using cloning.
The method used to produce Dolly the sheep is called "somatic cell nuclear transfer": the nucleus of a body cell ("somatic cell") is transferred into an unfertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed or rendered inactive. A tiny electric pulse may then stimulate development of the resulting embryo, which is an almost exact genetic twin of the creature that supplied the nucleus. It may be technically possible to use this procedure to reproduce human beings. What does cloning have to do with embryo research? A great deal.
The department also defines a clone as a copied material with identical genetic material as the original (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Cloning is performed by two possible methods: artificial embryo twinning or somatic cell nuclear transfer. In artificial embryo twinning, the natural process that creates identical twins, repetitive division of the embryo, is simulated in a petri dish and then placed into a surrogate mother to finish developing. Somatic cell nuclear transfer works by isolating a somatic cell, any non-reproductive cell, and transferring the nucleus to a female reproductive cell that is then chemically altered to behave like an embryo that is inserted into a surrogate mother (University of Utah Health Sciences, 2014). There are three different types of cloning: gene cloning that creates copies of genes or segments of DNA, reproductive cloning that copies entire organisms, and therapeutic ... ... middle of paper ... ...ho would like to conceive without her child receiving half of its DNA from a donor (McKie, Human Cloning Developments Raise Hopes for New Treatments, 2013).
Gene therapy will change the field of medicine from what it is today. As scientist discovers more genes and their functions, the potential of this treatment is limitless. Though gene therapy is an auspicious treatment choice for numerous diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the procedure remains precarious and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Thus government regulators and scientist must take a lead role in adopting a practical approach to address these issues and determining the correct procedures for dealing with them.