Cloning Ethics

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Cloning is consistently a topic found in the news, discussed in science classes or used in research by geneticists, biochemists and other scientists. Cloning can be divided into three specific types: molecular cloning, cell cloning and animal cloning. Molecular cloning focuses on transferring of genes from one organism to another (whether the same species or not). Cell cloning serves as the basis for animal cloning but is different in that the main focus is on causing stem cells to differentiate into specific cells for a patient or scientific research. Animal cloning is the actual cloning of a multi-cellular organism such as the sheep Dolly. All of that lead to ethical issues that can either inhibit further research or lead to alternative/safer measures for cloning.
Molecular Cloning
Molecular cloning serves as the basis for transferring specific genes into a target organism. This can be used to transfer resistance from a donor to the target. Molecular cloning can be alternatively thought of as DNA cloning, gene cloning or gene recombination. It is important to take into account the unique expression of the gene such as in what cell type expresses the gene. The temporal expression of the gene must also be taken into account that is when in the lifecycle that gene becomes expressed. Correctly identifying these elements leads to the ability to isolate that gene for recombination.
The process of molecular cloning can be broken up into several steps that require host DNA with the gene, enzymes, vectors, and host cells. Enzymes that are required include a restriction enzyme, and DNA ligase. Vectors consist of a plasmid that is a circular piece of DNA found within prokaryotic cells. There are various types of vectors: pla...

... middle of paper ... explained? Would it have physical problems? Psychological problems? Many other ethical issues exist and factor either into the rate of research or how it is accomplished.
Ethical issues may slow the progress of cloning, but they also lend to the further understanding of how it works and how we can find ways to improve the odds and help society with the multitude of problems it can solve. With molecular cloning, we can impart resistance in plants against diseases that ravish them – thus increasing the yield for our consumption. Cell cloning can be used to solve transplantation problems with donated organs or tissues. Animal cloning can be used to increase the amount of food, create healthier food or eliminate extinction of a species. Cloning presents many options to the many problems we now face and the advances being made offer us an exciting future.
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