Many scientists who work with cloned animals say that the procedure is difficult and dangerous and too ethical to try on humans. Therefore it is my purpose in this paper to chronicle some events that have led to the still emerging technologies that can be directly applicable to the of potential human cloning. Dolly, born at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in 1996, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult mammal. When Ian Wilmut, Keith H. S. Campbell a... ... middle of paper ... ...ired.com/news/print/0,1294,42706,00.html “Cloning: Questions and answers.” Roslin Institute Online. 3 Mar.
Therefore, the biological term cloning is the production of a genetically identical duplicate of an organism. However, people can use the word cloning to intend other meanings. For instance, we generalize many older and new techniques as cloning. This is not a good practice because these techniques are different and impose unique concerns and issues. In the world of scientific technology, cloning is the artificial production of organisms with the same genetic material.
Science Today and Human Cloning Nowadays, we are being constantly fed with the prophecy that molecular biology is the next revolutionary "wave" replacing information technology which has changed the way we live in the past 50 years. The past decade has seen scientists making significant breakthroughs in this field to start the current biotechnology hype. One defining achievement was the cloning of a sheep named Dolly by Dr. Ian Wilmut of Roslin Institute in 1996. This historic success debunked previous biology myth that adult cells have lost their totipotent abilities exhibited during early-stage embryonic stage. Now, it is possible for us to use the cells from an adult organism to create another genetically identical organism.
Scientists are now trying to get approval to clone humans or at least parts of them (Eccleston, CNN). All of these clonings have led to much criticism and controversy, but the latest attempt at cloning is that of endangered and possibly already extinct species in hopes of preserving them. This short paper will give a brief description of cloning and the pros and cons of preserving endangered and extinct species via means of cloning. Introduction There are different types of cloning. One type led by researchers at the Human Genome Project entails the copying of genes and parts of chromosomes in order to get enough identical genetic material to do further research, which they believe could help prevent human diseases in the future (Cloning fact sheet).
(Microsoft® Encarta® 97 Encyclopedia). There are two known ways that we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting an embryo into several halves and creating many new individuals from that embryo. The second method of cloning a human involves taking cells from an already existing human being and cloning them, in turn creating other individuals that are identical to that particular person. With these two methods at our desposal, we must ask ourselves two very important questions: Should we do this, and Can we?
Should Human Cloning be Legal? Cloning captured the public’s attention when Scottish scientists startled the world in July of 1996 when they announced the birth of a sheep named Dolly which they had cloned from the nucleus of an adult mammary cell and a sheep egg. Ever since this spectacular event occurred people have been thinking about the possibility of cloning humans. What would a clone be like? His/her physical appearance would be the same as the person he/she was cloned from, but depending on the society it would be brought up in it’s personality would be totally different.
According to the Webster’s dictionary, genetic engineering is the “scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins.” Kass states ... ... middle of paper ... ... In my opinion, I think that being born a clone is one thing, but the fact of living up to the expectations of the person your parents never got to be is merely wrong and unethical. The issue brought up many time is the fact that human cloning has not been proven to result in a healthy cloned baby with no defect, so my question is if the baby is born with defects what are they to do sue their “parents”? In addition, if the cloned baby is born with many defects, what are the parents to do?
Researchers lead by Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, showed that a fully differentiated cell from the mammary tissue of an ewe could be manipulated in such a way as to produce a genetically identical copy of the animal that the DNA was acquired. Scientist long believed that once a cell became differentiated, that most of its approximately 100,000 genes shut off. Only a few genes remained active to allow the cell to perform its specific function of life. All efforts to reactivate the shut-off genes have failed. English researchers have came the closest by teasing frog body cells to develop into tadpoles.
Over 100 years ago, cloning was introduced and throughout the years has been questioned, analyzed, and experimented. This topic has caused some people to revolt towards this controversial breakthrough. To begin with, cloning is “a cell product or organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived” (“Cloning”). It is simply “the duplication or closely resembles another in appearance, function, and performance” (“Cloning”). I did not know there were different types of artificial cloning including “reproductive cloning, DNA cloning, and therapeutic cloning” (“Gene Therapy”).
For instance, “bacteria produce genetically an identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction” (genome.gov), which is the mode of reproduction involving just one parent. Humans have also been able to clone plants for thousands of years. But until a few years ago, cloning animals was the real challenge; since the 1800’s people began to question the possibility of cloning using methods like cell division. One of the first scientists involved in animal cloning was Hans Driesch. Driesch was trying to prove splitting a cell while keeping its genes and DNA intact.