The type of sperm (X or Y) that fertilizes an egg can be chosen, which is used to determine the sex and genes of the baby. The embryos can be screened for genetic diseases, and only selected embryos are implanted back into the mother’s womb. This technique is called Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD. (Bionet par. 2) Michael Lemonick, a writer for Time, shows in his article “Designer Babies” that these techniques allow doctors and parents to reduce the chance that a child will be born with a genetic disorder.
One type led by researchers at the Human Genome Project entails the copying of genes and parts of chromosomes in order to get enough identical genetic material to do further research, which they believe could help prevent human diseases in the future (Cloning fact sheet). Another type of cloning is called Blastomere separation, also known as twinning. In this case they split an egg (embryo), soon after it has been fertilized which results in two or more embryos, twins, containing the same exact DNA from both parents (Cloning fact sheet). However, Dolly, was cloned from only one parent. To do this, scientists must take an egg, empty out its genetic material, and replace it with genetic material from another animal by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (Cloning fact sheet).
Sarah B. Tegen, '97 MIT Biology Undergraduate President states, "I think the cloning of an entire mammal has shown me exactly how fast biology is moving ahead, I had no idea we were so close to this kind of accomplishment." Based on the current science , though, most of these dreams and fears are premature, say some MIT biologists. Many biologist claim that true human cloning is something still far in the future. This raises ethical questions now as towhether or not human cloning should even be attempted. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/).
Over the few decades, cows, pigs, a sheep (only Dolly), and monkeys have successfully been cloned. The major reason why humans and other animals have not been cloned yet, aside from the acceptance of society, is because every organism's egg is different: its size, shape, and the stages of its 'life'. This has been proved over and over and therefore, there is no certain procedure or 'ingredients' for a clone (Virginia, Sirs). Admittedly, "to say that human cloning is forbidden won't stop the science [for some]" (Virginia, Sirs). If cloning is successful, it will help homosexuals and infertile couples for biological offspring.
Cloning could give hope to couples unable to have children of their own. By advocating cloning, doctors may find a way to cure or even prevent genetic diseases. Perhaps, though, the most important reason to advance cloning in the laboratory is to treat leukemia's and cancers. Very possibly, through cloning and genetic engineering, the growth of poorly formed cells could be stopped immediately. One reason to clone is hope for organ transplants.
Many arguments can be made for and against human cloning, but since it is unethical and would take away individuality and disrupt social values, the practice of cloning humans is one that government should ban and society should not accept. Proponents of human cloning may argue that it is just a logical and inevitable advance in science research and technology. It is, however, too risky for human subjects. At the present time, the general consensus of the public is against human cloning. (Fitzgerald 37) Within a few years' time, however, the medical possibilities of human cloning may be attractive enough to change public opinion.
The technology would take years to perfect and it might at first produce unpredictable results. Creating humans who are likely to develop deformities or killing malformed fetuses would be morally indefensible. Most people balk at the idea of engineering a race of people with supposedly superior physical and mental traits, since that would mean that some characteristics would have to be deemed unwanted and eliminated. Scientists should stop their further research on human-cloning for a better world with people with their own uniqueness.
"Everybody who thought it would proceed slowly and could be stopped was wrong," said Lee Silver, a professor from the University of Princeton. Without proper research to support the ban, the premature ban should be reconsidered and appealed. Cloning could provide a way for infertile couples to produce children genetically similar to themselves, a method of creating spare organs for transplants, and a cure for genetic disease. Human cloning may provide numerous benefits to mankind and should not be banned. Some people say that it is morally wrong and others are scared that a leader, such as Sadam Husian, will clone himself.
After the cure, “he will be treated as a freak, set apart from others, the object of tiring scientific and public curiosity, and exposed to unending physical and psychological testing.” (Thomas) In addition, does the human clone’s goal of life disappeared? Who are born for someone in the world? Is there anything like this inhumane act except human cloning? The final argument advanced by opponents of banned human cloning is that human cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another, so it will cure diseases as quickly as possible. However, the research said differently.