Scientists can now isolate an individual gene from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different species (Clarke, 1). While this is occurring a scientist can also take a cells chromosomes and nucleus, and inject them into a fertilized egg whose own nucleus has been removed (Clarke, 3). However another new process that was used to clone the worlds most famous sheep, is starting to be used more often. This new process involved taking mammary-gland cells from a sheep and starve them of growth, then electrically inject an egg which was later transplanted into a surrogate mother. Out of 300 attempts, only one survived the process, Dolly a lamb born in 1996 (Worldbook, 1).
It all began with the team from the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, Scotland led by Dr. Ian Wilmut. Wilmut and his colleagues wanted to see if specialized cells could be reprogrammed into thinking that they were not specialized and develop all over again, thus creating a clone (Wilmut et al. 810). Cloning, as defined by the Cloning Prohibition Act of 1997, "means the production of a precise genetic copy of a molecule (including DNA), cell, tissue, plant, animal, or human" (4). Before this experiment, it was known that once an egg cell from a mammal was fertilized, it would begin to divide and differentiate, first into an embryo, and then into other specialized cell types like skin and organs.
A year later, scientist Ian Wilmut copied First’s experiment with separate cells from sheep, but put the embryo cells into an inactive state before transferring their nuclei to sheep eggs. The eggs developed into normal lambs. Wilmut’s cloned sheep, Dolly, was born a year later in 1996, but was not announced until 1997. Sadly, Dolly the sheep was put to sleep on February 14th, 2003 after developing progressive lung disease. Anti-cloning critics argue that the science of cloning is in its infancy and, mistakes may be made along the way.
The scientists then committed somatic cell nuclear transfer and took the inactive donor cells and fused them with an egg without a nucleus from a different bread of sheep. Then, continuing to use the reproductive cloning procedure, the scientist implanted the egg into a third breed of sheep’s uterus. When Dolly came to full term and was born, the scientist immediately recognized that the lamb looked very similar to the breed of the sheep who donated the DNA, and nothing like the sheep who donated the egg or gave birth to the lamb. Later on, DNA tests confirmed that indeed, Dolly was an exact clone of the DNA donor. On April 13, 1998 Dolly gave birth to a healthy lamb, proving her health to be standard.
First scientist isolate and egg cell and remove its nucleus. Then they isolate a somatic cell ( a cell in the body that is not the reproductive cell.) and transfer its nucleus into the egg cell. Then using electromagnetic pulses, the egg cell acts like a zygote and is placed in a surrogate mother. The famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was cloned this way.
But it does force us to ask questions about the way we are using animals with new technology, and the kinds of assumptions we make. To create Dolly (the cloned sheep), Scottish researchers simply took an unfertilized sheep egg and removed its genetic material. They then placed the empty egg in a dish with a cell from an adult sheep's udder, which contained a full complement of the adult sheep's genes. Finally the scientists applied an electric spark, which caused the two cells to fuse and begin dividing. The embryo was then transplanted into the womb of a surrogate mother to grow.
The topic I chose was cloning, but I will be focusing on Human Cloning. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be created using cloning technology in 1997. With the birth of Dolly the sheep it had raise of a possibility of one day being able to clone human. It took 277 times to create dolly the sheep although it suffers from arthritis and premature aging. In December 2002, a religious group of Raelin claimed that a human baby was cloned but it had not been scientifically confirmed.
English researchers have came the closest by teasing frog body cells to develop into tadpoles. The tadpoles, however, never matured into frogs. The Scottish researchers have failed many times with sheep cells before their success, but the task was perfected and accomplished. Now this accomplishment has made it possible for the cloning of almost any mammal, including humans. To the average person, exactly how the technique works is unclear.
appeared on the news. Dr. Ian Wilmut, the head of the Roslin Institute in Edinburg, Scotland had led the team who cloned Dolly. Dolly was cloned from the omit ‘the’ one reproductive tissue of one adult female sheep, so that she was genetically identical. Dolly what happened here? started from a no--the mammary cells of a six year old ewe.
Credited with the most notable achievement towards cloning humans, Woo Suk Hwang's lab from Seoul National University reported the transfer of several human donor cells into two hundred forty two eggs with the nuclei removed. "The batch produced 30 blastocysts (an early stage of embryonic development), of which only one yielded a self-renewing stem-cell line" (Delude, 1). Hwang is quoted saying, "We had to start from the bottom and open every door" (Delude, 1). With the results of his labs experiments and his statement, this just proves the lack of knowledge to clone humans is far too great and the required fields to gain the proper knowledge are inhumane and unsafe. An argument posed in support of cloning humans is that since parents are permitted to carry a known abnormal fetus until birth then cloning should be permitted because the fetus will be healthy and that is better than an abnormal fetus.