Satisfactory Essays

Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy

of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same. This

has been done naturally in nature with identical twins and it has been

done artificially since around the 1950s though it has improved over

time to the stage where scientists can even clone mammals. The purpose

of cloning in scientific exploration and cloning may one day be able

to help people needing new organs. Cloning is done in a couple of

different ways. Artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear


Artificial embryo twinning is done by mimicking the natural process of

creating identical twins. In nature twins occur after fertilization

when the zygote tries to divide into a two celled embryo and the two

cells separate; each developing on their own person inside the womb.

Though this is rare it does happen naturally and the two individuals

are genetically identical. Artificial embryo twinning copies this

separation of a singular embryo into two separate embryos, yet it is

done in a laboratory and the embryos are separated manually in a

petri dish after the embryo first splits. The two separate embryos are

then placed into a surrogate mother where they develop naturally.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer produces the same result as artificial

embryo twinning, yet it is a different way of cloning. First scientist

isolate and egg cell and remove its nucleus. Then they isolate a

somatic cell ( a cell in the body that is not the reproductive cell.)

and transfer its nucleus into the egg cell. Then using electromagnetic

pulses, the egg cell acts like a zygote and is placed in a surrogate

mother. The famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was cloned this way.

There are two main cloning types; therapeutic and reproductive

cloning. Reproductive cloning is used to make a genetic copy of an

already existing animal. This is the more well known of the two types

using somatic cell nuclear transfer. Therapeutic cloning is the

production of human embryos for research.
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