Unnatural cloning is done by artificial embryo twinning that mimics the natural process in which identical twins are created. Within the natural cloning process, the embryo splits in two. Each half of the embryo keeps splitting until it is two complete individuals. Being they were from the same initial fertilized egg, they are genetically identical. In artificial embryo twinning, even though a Petri dish carries the embryo rather than a mother, the process still uses the same approach as twinning in the natural sense.
Cloning can happen naturally in nature. One example would be identical twins that occur in humans. Twins are formed when a fertilized egg splits into two embryos with the same DNA. Scientists have now discovered ways to produce artificial clones using three different type of artificial clone techniques which include gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gen e cloning involves producing identical copies of DNA.
To create a clone is to create identical copy. This imprecise definition can be tied to a number of creatures and processes in biology, those including, mono zygote (identical) twins (when one fertilized egg splits into two embryos in the first week of fertilization) , horticulture (a section of plant being implanted in a different place to create a decedent of the original plant) , and parthenogenesis (the method of asexual reproduction by females.) The creatures and processes listed above all fall under the category clones and cloning, but the difference between these and the clones and cloning processes normally referenced in, for example, science fiction, is where they occur. The examples listed are naturally occurring clones and cloning techniques, regarded as biology clones, whereas the other type of clones and cloning occurs artificially or in laborites. This genre of cloning is cloning in biotechnology.
The twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but differ from the parents in that regard. There are three types of artificial cloning that includes gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning consists of producing copies of genes or segments of DNA. Reproductive cloning produces identical copies of whole animals. Therapeutic cloning consists of producing embryonic stem cells used in experiments to create tissues for replacing injured or diseased tissues.
Cloning is described as a process of producing exact genetic copies of different cells, organisms or many others (animals, organs). Cloning has been examined to be the process of producing clones of the exact DNA. An example of cloning would be the famous “Dolly The Sheep”. “Dolly (July 5, 1996 - February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. The technique that was made famous by her birth is somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which a cell is placed in a de-nucleated ovum, the two cells fuse and then develop into an embryo” (Science Daily).
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another. Scientist transfer genetic materials from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus has been removed. This reconstructed egg containing the DNA must be treated with chemicals or electric current to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it develops until birth (Paul Lauritzen, Cloning). The most notable example of reproductive cloning was dolly the sheep.
This type of cloning is also called reproductive cloning. The last one is Therapeutic cloning. This involves the cloning of human embryos for the production of stem cells. The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to extract the stem ... ... middle of paper ... ... dolly the sheep was a success because they could see that Dolly’s face was clearly a whiteface poll Dorset and not a Scottish blackface. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there from her birth in 1996 until her death in 2003 when she was six.
The natural way of a clone is identical twins. In nature, twins occur just after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. Then when the fertilized egg, a zygote, tries to divide into a two-celled embryo, the two cells separate. Each cell continues dividing on its own, eventually developing into a separate individual within the mother. Another natural way of cloning is when single celled organisms, for example bacteria, produce genetically identical offspring.
The type of sperm (X or Y) that fertilizes an egg can be chosen, which is used to determine the sex and genes of the baby. The embryos can be screened for genetic diseases, and only selected embryos are implanted back into the mother’s womb. This technique is called Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD. (Bionet par. 2) Michael Lemonick, a writer for Time, shows in his article “Designer Babies” that these techniques allow doctors and parents to reduce the chance that a child will be born with a genetic disorder.
Usually Cloning is done by an Artificial Embryo, but sometimes can also come down to doing it by Somatic cell transfer. Artificial Embryo copies the natural way of being able to create identical twins. Artificial Embryo twinning is done in a lab in which takes the egg that has already been fertilized by the sperm, and eventually will result in the cells diving. This will eventually end up creating identical twins. This is similar to Somatic Cell nuclear transfer.