What makes a criminal a criminal? Can anyone become a criminal? Answering and understanding these questions is the core work of criminologists as most criminologists attempt to make sense of why people do certain things (Garland, Sparks 2000). This essay will consider the notion that any person could become a criminal and in so doing consider the initial question. This essay will outline a range of theories that attempt to describe human behavior in relation to criminal behavior given the complexities of behaviour.
After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society. In order to understand what crime is we must first look at the definition of what criminal activity is. The term crime comes from a classification of wrongdoing that were established by state or Congress as a felony or misdemeanor, which is committed against a public law. Crime is defined as all deviance involving violating norms, but some norms attract the attention of the authorities. Acts that have been declared illegal by some authority are called crime (Curry, Jiobu, & Schwirian, 1999).
Numerous approaches can be offered for this process, but profiling is a common tactic that has aided law enforcement in seeking justice for both suspects and victims. Although viewed negatively at times, law enforcement profiling is an effective tool for police officers that should not be abandoned due to infrequent and negligible invasions into an innocent person’s personal privacy. Suspect profiling has diverse backgrounds, intentions, and classifications that are demonstrated in various forms and allows law enforcement to evaluate and distinguish any probable evidence. With the following paragraphs I will provide detailed information on what ‘profiling suspects’ means in a law enforcement setting, the pros and cons of profiling, and the reasons why profiling should be used in law enforcement. Profiling Possible Suspects Although there have been many proposals offered to the logic behind criminals and how they act, the significance of profiling possible suspects are stressed upon by law enforcement in order to achieve and maintain a way to justify the means.
I will provide a thorough account of how they attempt to explain crime and how offenders are propelled into crime and the usefulness of such theories. Finally my analysis will focus on the role of these when working with offenders and will highlight the implications for probation practice. Different writers have attempted to construct historical connections for the development of criminology. I will begin with the emergence of Classicism, which grew out of the Enlightenment movement in the eighteenth-century. This was influenced by the work of Cesare Beccaria and his publication the Dei Delitti e Delle Pene (On Crimes and Punishment) in 1764 (Beccaria, 1963, cited Cavadino and Dignan 2002, p46).
For example, when an individual fails to achieve their goals in life, this individual may choose a different way which might be illegal to achieve their goals. I believe both of these theories are accurate. I also think that it is important to look at these theories to try to fix this problem that can happen to anyone. In conclusion, strain theory focus to those people who commit crime to achieve their goals and labelling theory focuses on those individuals that continue committing crime. There are some solutions that exist for example, when a youth is in conflict with the law there identity is kept secret.
Anomie/Strain Theory Historical Background The theoretical framework of strain theory can be credited to sociologist Emile Durkheim. Durkheim research on formed a platform for other sociologist to further develop strain theories of crime. One of which is Robert Merton. One of Durkheim’s major works that opened the door to further research on strain theories was his book, Suicide. In this book Durkheim sough to understand the why led to one’s own self-destruction.
Criminology is the study of criminals and crime, but more importantly, why individuals commit a crime and why they behave differently in certain situations. When this is understood, methods of preventing and controlling crime are discussed and put into practice. There are several different theories explaining why people commit a crime, but the ones that I will be focusing on are the theories in the neoclassical school of criminology: Rational choice theory and the Routine activity theory. The aim of this essay is to attempt to discuss the contribution of the neoclassical school of criminology to crime and crime prevention through the use of explanations and critiques of the different theories. The Classical school of criminology was a development
The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished. Understanding crimes from inside out allows us to avoid breaking the law and being considered criminals. Most criminals have a reason to
It is important, therefore, for criminologists to create an understanding to members of the society regarding the root cause of crime and what dictates the behaviour of individuals who are considered to be criminals (Tierney 2009). Criminology has often been defined as a field of study where scholars from different disciplines in the society come together to find answers to problems identified in the society. Sociological approaches, however, have influenced theoretical conclusions in criminology. That however has not limited other factors like biological factors as explained by Walsh (2000) and Wright and Boisvert (2009). Psychological theories in criminology have also determined a given level of perception developed by the society states Durrant and Ward (2012).
And psychological theory suggest that behavior of crime is the result of individual’s differences in thinking process. These three theories can help criminality to try find out why people commit crime or what leads people to commit crime. It is important to study criminality theories because that way authorities can have a better understanding of