Classical Theory Of Criminology

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Crime is considered commonplace in contemporary Britain; furthermore, many members of society may become a victim of crime at some point in their lives. Durkheim (1938) even suggested that crime is a normal function; it sets boundaries to the rest of society. Many experts have expressed their fascination with crime and their need to understand criminal behaviour; thus, the science of criminology was born. Criminology is fundamental in understanding criminal behaviour and the effect it has on the law and the society in which we live (Williams, 2012). Moreover, the theoretical approaches of criminology play an essential ingredient in the understanding of offending and criminal behaviour. Therefore, this essay will focus on describing two…show more content…
For instance, classicism was responsible for the birth of ‘due process’ meaning everyone has a right to a fair and speedy trial by an impartial judge. Torture and capital punishment became less favoured; alternatively, prisons became the preferred method of punishment, stressing the emphasis on deterrence. Moreover, sentencing started to fit the crime; a balance was finally becoming apparent (Newburn,…show more content…
Whereas classicism concentrated on the offence and the free will of the offender, positivism concentrated on the offender and the fact that their behaviour was determined because of biological and psychological influences (Newburn, 2013). Furthermore, positivism responded to crime by seeing it as an illness that needed to be treated, a stark contrast to classicism’s promotion on punishment. Positivism branches off into three types of theory - psychological, sociological and biological. Outlined, the psychological theory looks at internal factors such as learned behaviour and criminal personality. The sociological theory takes into account culture, society and certain agents of socialisation (Burke,
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