Behaviorism is an essential part of our daily lives since it reflects how we learn and deal with varying circumstances. Schacter, Gilbert and Wegner (2011) states that behaviorism restricts psychologists to focus purely on observable behavior; it rejects the emphasis of the conscious and unconscious mind (p. 16). Ivan Pavlov, who was a Russian physiologist, discovered this concept when he researched the role that saliva played on digestion. In his experiment, he gave the dogs’ meat powder to see how they would salivate to it. After a while, he noticed that the dogs’ salivated even before he gave them food; if the dogs’ saw the white lab coat, put in the harness, hear the sound of a buzzer, or the ringing of a bell.
Describe the Learning Theories/Scientific Contributions of the following theorists: a. Ivan Pavlov (1 point) Born in Russia, Ivan Pavlov discovered conditioning reflex when he research how dogs salivate in the sight of foods. He made his discovery when after noticing the lining of the stomach released digestive juices when it response to direct stimulation from food particles. Pavlov arrived at this conclusion because his primary idea was to surgically implant an esophageal fistula in dog's throat and a gastric fistula in their stomach (Olson & Hergenhahn, Chapter 7, 2013). • Classical Conditioning: Classical conditioning known as Pavlovian is a concept developed by a famous psychologist named Ivan P. Pavlov. In his experiment Pavlov noticed that his dogs salivated every time his dogs saw... ... middle of paper ... ...rough behavior modification or reinforcements (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013).
Pavlov made a small cut on the inside of the dogs’ mouth and attached a tube that connected to a container for the collection and measurement of saliva. One day he noticed that there was saliva starting to collect in the container when the dog heard the assistant coming to feed him. The dog had already been conditioned to the sound of the footsteps as a conditioned stimulus. And although completely by accident Pavlov had just proved his classical conditioning theory. He had made a discovery, now was his chance to research it, and he did so in his lab of his own design.
Classical conditioning is the first type of learning to be discovered and studied by behaviorists. In classical conditioning, no new behaviors are learned, but rather associated or paired with something else. In the early 1900’s a Russian physician and physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, was studying digestion in dogs, when he observed something remarkable about their behavior. Pavlov built a mechanism to measure the salivation of dogs when they were fed a meat powder. He monitored their natural reaction to the powder by attaching tubes to their salivary glands.
Pavlov` main focus was the study of the digestive glands of dogs when he stumbled across the function of saliva in dogs. He found that dogs salivate involuntarily whenever food is placed in front of them. Pavlov began to see conditioned reflexes which are reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the association between a stimulus and response. In Pavlov 's experiment he used a bell as a neutral stimulus and rang the bell everytime he gave the dog food. The food is the unconditioned stimulus and the dog 's saliva is the unconditioned response.
After repeating this process a couple of times he ran into what he called a problem, the dog would salivate at just the site of the food, and eventually the dish the food came in and even the sound of footsteps walking towards him. Pavlov, trying to get around this problem tried to sneak up on the dog, but to no avail. Later Pavlov realized he stumbled upon a form of learning now known as classical conditioning, and devoted the rest of his life to studying it. To study his new, so called “problem” he had to have a system set up in which he would feed the dog. Often he used a dry meat powder, this powder would automatically cause the dog to salivate.
Classical Conditioning Today The relationship between saliva and a bell root back to one of the most studied and well known cases of learning. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian doctor that focused in the study of digestion in the early 1900s. Because he specialized in the breakdown of food, gastric secretion and saliva were major components of his research. A lot of his experiments included dogs, which Pavlov noticed salivated whenever meat powder was present. As time continued, he began to recognize that different stimulus also got the dogs to drool, but in different amounts.
Then they moved Albert to a different room for testing, he had a reaction to the rat, rabbit, and dog. While they tested him in this room they were still making noise while presenting the animal. For example when the dog was shown it would bark in the middle of the session, and when the rat was shown the loud band was still made. According to Ronna f. Dillon, “Albert was said to show fear when touching a mask, a sealskin coat, the rat, a dog, and a rabbit” (2). Watson proved that classical conditioning works on humans with the little Albert
Ivan Pavlov, a russian behaviorist, is known for his classic conditioning experiments. Classical Conditioning is a type of learning where we associate two stimuli. It is noted that his curiosity aspired when he noticed salivation ran on the tangent of putting food in a dogs mouth. He began noticing that the dog not only salivated to the food in its mouth but with the environment associated with food such as location, sight of the person feeding him, the food dish, even the sound of footsteps. Pavlov considered these “psychic secretions” an annoyance of his study until he realized it all apart of the form of learning.