Classic Management And Systems Theory

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Classic management and systems theory (Taylor, 1917; Weber, 1947; Senge, 1990) have been used respectively in describing organizational behaviour. They assume a similar perspective in responding to turbulence and change that is often seen in healthcare organizations of today (Ford, 2008). Theories such as classical organizational theory developed by Frederick Taylor in 1917 (Taylor, 1917) to more contemporary theories such as Peter Senge’s systems theory in 1990 (Senge 1990), have examined perspectives regarding change and innovation in organizations. The readiness of organizations and individual practitioners to enter into interprofessional collaborative care teams is an example of organizational change that can help shape innovative health system research and potentially may have a positive impact on system provider and health outcomes of people (Taylor, 1917; Senge, 1990; O’Brien-Pallas, Tomblin Murphy, Birch & Baumann, 2001; Fraser, Jane, Ceri, & Ray, 2011; Tomblin Murphy et al., 2007; Tomblin Murphy et al., 2013). Although there is a growing number of interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice initiatives, many have not been informed through the use of a theoretical framework (Barr, 2005; Hammick et al., 2007). As such, theories play an important role in the planning, implementation and evaluation of IP initiatives and help to contribute to a more rigorous research methodology when used appropriately. In a 2011 article titled “A Scoping Review to Identify Organizational and Education Theories Relevant for Interprofessional Practice and Education”, Reeves et al., described theoretical frameworks as coherent and systematic articulations of a set of issues communicated as a meaningful whole ... ... middle of paper ... ...ur is established by what has been observed in the past and the influence that a person has been subject to. The concept requires the introduction of new influences for change or the removal of existing factors that maintain the behaviour. When an individual acknowledges that their present condition is unacceptable and they are dissatisfied with their situation a gap between what is believed and what needs to be believed for change, occurs. During this time, what was believed may now be seen as invalid and this creates a state of anxiety. Learning anxiety triggers defensiveness and resistance because the pain of having to unlearn what previously had been accepted as a normal state of being. According to Schein (1999a), three stages occur in response to learning anxiety: denial; scapegoating or passing the buck; and manoeuvring and bargaining (Schein 1999a).
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