The American Civil War helped to save the nation by rejoining Union Confederate and as result of the Emancipation Proclamation, most African American slaves were declared freed men. However, during the American Reconstruction, the lack of political unity was still very apparent as the South saw Reconstruction as being defeated humiliatingly and thus sought vengeance through the slaves it had lose. Although many slaves did receive their freedom, Reconstruction caused an increase in the white supremacy groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and laws such black codes/ Jim Crow laws/ sharecropping, which limited the rights freed slaves had. This unfortunately caused many of the freed slaves to be only marginally better off than before the Civil War and to still be under white control even after the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment. Having a president that was formerly a slave owner and opposed the rights of freed men as well a weak central government that was in a state of disorder thus caused a failure to put an end to segregation and integrate freed African Americans into society; instead they were seen as second class citizens that had limited rights and were still discriminated even more harshly by bitter Southerners.
What many people don’t know is that the original intent of the Civil War was to preserve the Union. Many factors went into Lincoln’s decision to also address slavery through this war. For one, the number of men enlisting in the war was dwindling, and it became apparent that black manpower would be absolutely necessary to win the war. Also, the increasingly upset Radical Republicans and abolitionists let their opinions be known and persuaded the citizens of the North that the war could not be won without attacking the issue of slavery. Finally, Lincoln believed that transforming the dispute from a conflict to preserve the Union to a crusade against slavery would dissuade the threatening British and French from supporting the Confederacy.
During Reconstruction the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments were passed, collectively known as the Reconstruction Amendments. The thirteenth amendment abo... ... middle of paper ... ...ss cracking down on them, the Reconstruction Amendments failing their purpose and a continued suppression of African Americans Reconstruction fell to Southerner’s resistance. Johnson should never have written the Confederates off as lightly as he did, especially their highest ranking men. That was his biggest mistake. He and Congress should have worked harder to protect the now free African Americans.
After the Civil War, America went through a period of Reconstruction. This was when former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union. Lincoln had a plan that would allow them to come back, but they wouldn’t be able to do it easily. He would make 10% of the population swear an oath of loyalty and establish a government to be recognized. However, he was assassinated in Ford’s Theater and Andrew Johnson became the president; Johnson provided an easy path for Southerners.
In 1865, when Johnson declared reconstruction to be over, many Republicans, appalled at this, took action by refusing to seat Southerners that had recently been elected into Congress. Surprisingly enough, when the Civil Rights Bill came along abolishing the Black Codes and giving all people equal rights, Johnson passed it along with another bill. This action once again gave the African Americans more freedom. This was when Johnson’s prejudice against African Americans began to show up more and more. Around this time, two major bills were proposed; one of them was the Civil Rights bill.
As the Civil War came underway the South’s military, smaller than the North’s, would take heavy blows from the decisions of the Confederacy. First of all they knew that if all their plantation owners fought in the war, their crops would possibly die out or not produce as much. To combat this problem they decided in the Conscription law that if someone had twenty or more slaves, they didn’t have to fight in the war. This caused the price of slaves to increase and caused crops from small slave holding plantations and yeoman farmers to do terrible. Since most Southerners fell into that category, the South would really feel the damage.
“With malice toward none, with charity to all,” Lincoln said in his second inauguration speech. He was referring to not only the conflict between black men and white men, but also the hard feelings between the north and south. The southern states had entered the Civil War with such confidence and dreams of independence that many were now humiliated at the idea of having to receive aid from the federal government. President Lincoln’s assassination also put in the country in further turmoil. However, an America like the one before the war would not come together quite so easily.
Reconstruction successfully reintegrated the southern states into the Union through Lincoln and Johnson’s Reconstruction Plans, but was mostly a failure due to the continued discriminatory policies against African Americans, such as the Black Codes, Jim Crow laws, and sharecropping, as well as the widespread corruption of the elite in the North and the Panic of 1873, Although Lincoln and Johnson both passed Reconstruction plans that helped reunite the north and the south, ultimately Congress was not satisfied and passed its own plan. Lincoln passed a rather forgiving Reconstruction plan because in his opinion, the Confederate states had never seceded from the Union. The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction included a ten percent plan, which “ would recognize them as people of the states within which they acted, and aid them to gain in all respects full acknowledgement and enjoyment of statehood, even though the persons who thus acted were but a tenth part of the original voters of their states” (W... ... middle of paper ... ...ights of blacks due to the inequitable laws such as the Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, and sharecropping, and the fact that the Economic Depression of 1873 and the common acts of corruption distressed the economy. The southern states were reunified with the northern states through Lincoln and Johnson’s Reconstruction programs, even though Congress did not fully support them and created their own plan. Reconstruction was meant to truly give blacks the rights they deserved, but the southerners’ continuous acts of discrimination including the Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, and sharecropping eventually denied them of those rights.
As Johnson was a Southerner himself, from Tennessee, he was sympatheti... ... middle of paper ... ...’s policies and personality. Over time they took over the immense burden of Reconstruction for the betterment of the country in order to mend the wounds left by the Civil War. Lincoln’s assassination was an extremely destructive incident which, in multiple aspects, still has an impact on the current American society. Historically, the United States never had the chance to reap the potential benefits had Lincoln been able to implement his form of Reconstruction. Instead the country had to suffer the pain of a battle between Andrew Johnson and Congress as the country healed after a bloody and costly war.
By 1855, the Whig Party had collapsed, and most of the members joined the new popular party, the Republicans. The Democrats believed in slavery, while the Republicans were against it. This led to greater conflict in the North and South, this gave them competition. In fact, the election of 1860 was a major cause of the Civil War. During this election, Lincoln became the first Republican president, vowing to abolish slavery.