President Johnson tried to enforce Lincolnâ€™s Ten Percent Plan. That as soon as ten percent of the population of any southern state took an oath of loyalty to the union and adopted a constitution that abolished slavery they would be readmitted to the union. The radical republicans in congress totally disagreed with Johnson. Many of the southern states in 1865 under presidential reconstruction adopted what was known as black codes. These codes restricted blacks from any participation in the rights of citizenship. Blacks were confined to an inferior position, they were not legally slaves anymore, but they had no rights of citizenship.
America was going through a lot of change economically, politically and socially throughout history and the time before 1865 was definitely a time for change. The world was under reconstruction even before it was deemed the Reconstruction Era. The New Land was stretching as the political leaders were working to acquire more land. America was as fragile as ever at this time because there was rebellion and chaos among slave owners and slaves, our political leaders were deemed inept, and the nation was divided over civil rights issues. Throughout this time before 1865 they faced a lot of change but it came with consequences as well because some people suffered working for change.
I would like to begin this assignment with a brief explanation of the points and reasons that relate to the topic of how and what the reasons were on why Southern whites were in favor of limiting rights and freedom to the black population of the United States , such reasons and ideas included the organized anti-black intimidating terrorist group The Ku Klux Klan , the introduction of the Black Codes formerly known as the Jim Crow laws and President Lincolns ideas such as the emancipation proclamation and the 10% loyalty oath and lastly sharecropping during the reconstruction era. To begin this essay first will be a brief explanation about the Reconstruction era .
America's bloodiest and most deadly battle was The American Civil War. America was never the same after the civil war. America changed and became a different nation. The civil war is noted as one of the most meaningful, impacting, and important events in America’s history. The Civil War was fought between the northern and the southern states. However, its impact was felt by the entire nation politically, economically, and socially. This war cost over 600,000 lives and divided the nation.
Through the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution, the republicans tried to protect and establish black freedoms. At the same time southern state legislators were passing laws to restrict free blacks’ freedoms. Through the use of black codes and vagrancy laws, the south attempted to keep blacks in a state of slavery. These laws were worded in a way such that blacks rights would be so restricted that it would remain impossible for them to gain any real freedom.
On November 6, 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected as president in the United State. But, the United States had been divided in the 1850s, due to the question about expansion of slavery and the rights of the slave owner. The issue of slavery had heated the nation to the boiling point. Fourth Months later, after Abraham presidential election, the seven states in the deep southern part of the United States, like South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia. Louisiana, and Texas, had seceded and seized many federal facilities. Although President Lincoln is the president of the United State, he still had no official powers to do anything about the Southern forming a new nation. On April 15, Lincoln called 75,000 volunteers to put down the Southern rebellion, and to reverse the seven states to vote in favor of session. After the nation drifted toward conclusion, Abraham Lincoln traveled all over the North, so he can make campaign speeches for the Republicans party. Abram Lincoln used his influence, as the leader of the Republican Party, by reaching out to the political leader of the Republican party, writing privately letters, demanded that the Republican party needs to hold firm to its opposition to the extension of slavery and to also reassure the southern that the Republicans composed no threats. When Civil War begins, Abr...
Those opposing HB 2281 have a very different perspective on schooling and society. These individuals believe in the social reconstructionist approach to schooling. As Schiro describes, social reconstructionists believe that society, as is, is unhealthy (Schiro 6). In other words, those who endorse ethnic studies programs would believe that society in its current state is detrimental, and that schools should be used to address this issue to provoke social change. This desire for social change stems from underwhelming educational attainment by Hispanic students. According to Dr. Augustine Romero, the Director of Student Equity in TUSD, “Approximately 50% of Hispanics drop out of school year after year, and the numbers are not improving,
Many of the southerners then went toward his plan since they thought it could help them get more resources, and invented the black codes. Because the South happily took advantage of his arrangement, many Radicals of the Congress found it very devastating and planned on making their own Reconstruction Act. There were many Moderates as well, and they were the ones who controlled the party. They thought that Johnson was right when it came to the choice of whether they would include the Negros’ opinions on what the laws would be, yet they agreed that with the Radicals that African Americans should have the right to put a little bit of insight on the constitution and government. This determined that it should be upon the Congress to see if the Reconstruction Act was rational, not President Johnson. So first in 1866, the Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which guaranteed the rights of former slaves. Johnson then vetoed the act since he opposed the federal protection of the former slaves. The congress then repassed the act, making it the first major law that has been approved over the President’s
Following Lincoln’s tragic assassination, President Andrew Johnson took on the accountability of making Reconstruction a reality. Andrew Johnson wanted to use Lincoln’s ideas of reconstruction but in a modified form. Since Congress would be in recess for eight more months Johnson decided to go ahead with his plan. Johnson's goal in reconstruction was to grant amnesty to all former Confederates (except high officials), the ordinances of secession were to be revoked, Confederate debts would repudiate, and the states had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Once the states swore to a loyalty oath to abide by the conditions they would be allowed to return to the Union. After swearing to the oath Confederate States would be allowed to govern themselves. With this power the states implemented the creation of a system of black codes that restricted the actions of freed slaves in much the same way, if not exactly the same way, that slaves were restricted under the old law. The end result of his plan was a hopeless conflict with the Radical Republicans who dominated Congress, passed measures over Johnson's vetoes, and attempted to limit the power of the executive concerning appointments and removals.
On April 12th, 1861 Fort Sumter was assaulted by Confederate force marking the start to America’s bloodiest war and biggest tragedy. But throughout the bloodshed and gun smoke shone a light, the light of hope in every African American’s heart that they would win the battle and overcome slavery so every American, black or white could be free and be treated and viewed as equals. An America where skin color meant nothing and everyone could be what they wanted and have an equal chance at it. But for this wonderful light of hope to be achieved, African American had to play their part in the Civil War, and that they did.
William Mason Grosvenor believes that Reconstruction should be harsh. Grosvenor has two main arguments to support this belief, manifest destiny and the potential for the reoccurrence of a similar event to the war if Reconstruction was carried out in a lenient manner. Grosvenor argues that the country, pre-Civil War, was never truly a single unified country, but rather a group of peoples with vastly different values held together by a constitution which they had outgrown, saying, “[n]o chemical union had ever taken place; for that the white-hot crucible of civil war was found necessary.” Furthermore, Grosvenor believes that the succession of the South demonstrated this divide while simultaneously violating the doctrine of manifest destiny through
The Civil War and Reconstruction represent the revolution of American society and its democracy. The Civil War occurred due to conflicts between the North and South having different beliefs on subjects pertaining to the institution of slavery. Additionally, the Reconstruction era, focused on rebuilding the South and it was indeed challenging to many southerners who were slave owners and found it difficult to readjust to a society where blacks were now free, when they relied so heavily on slavery. Some people may argue that the Civil War and Reconstruction can be seen more as an evolution of American society and democracy instead of a revolution, but historical events prove otherwise. The Civil War and Reconstruction did not change American
As a nation, America has faced some troublesome times through her life span. As history goes on, people never forget about the Reconstruction era. Reconstruction was refers to the efforts made in the United State between 1865 and 1877. As the saying goes, ¨All good things must come to an end¨ which is exactly the case. The reputation Reconstruction has is labeled both a success and a failure.
William Howard Russell once said, "Little did I conceive of the greatness of the defeat, the magnitude of the disaster which it had entailed upon the United States. So short-lived has been the American Union, that men who saw it rise may live to see it fall.” At one point in History, the United States was not one nation. The Civil War had created many issues for the United States and the country was desperate for a solution. This solution was thought to be reconstruction. Reconstruction was the attempt from the early 60's until the late 70's to resolve the issues of the war after slavery was dismissed and the Confederacy was defeated. Reconstruction also attempted to address how states would again become part of the Union, the status of Confederate leaders, and the status of African Americans across the United States.