Civil society is considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity. In a broader spectrum it is seen as the summation of non-governmental institutions and organizations demonstrate and manifest the interests and the will of citizens. Its meaning has undergone significant changes and might vary in different national contexts. In modern political science, civil society is considered to be the intermediary between the state and the private sector. Civil society can be defined as the realm of organized social life that is open, voluntary, bound by a legal order or set of shared rules (Diamond, 1999). In a civil society, individual citizens can act collectively in order to demand their rights from the state or convey their views regarding state affairs to maintain a check of authority of the state and to ensure its accountability. Considering this, the civil society may incorporate a variety of associations concerned with public affairs and matters. They include issue-oriented, civic, educational, and religious interest groups and associations. While some of these are known as NGOs (non-governmental organizations), the others are loosely structured and informal.
Formal equality in any respect is when people under consideration have equal status in that normatively relevant respect. The separation of socio-economic inequalities from formal political equality therefore implies that the civil society is compatible with social differences and divisions.
Civil society and the promotion of democratization are related. Civil society helps build and protect a democratic framework (Blakeley and Bryson, 2002). In some countries, the role of elites is also responsible for the way specific state affairs are d...
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...mperative accomplice in the journey for this sort of positive relationship between the fair state and its residents.
Diamond, Larry. Developing democracy: Toward consolidation. JHU Press, 1999.
Blakeley, G. and Bryson, V. (2002). Contemporary political concepts. Pluto.
Mercer, C. (2002). NGOs, civil society and democratization: a critical review of the literature. Progress in development studies, 2(1), pp.5--22.
Booth, J. and Richard, P. (1998). Civil society, political capital, and democratization in Central America. The Journal of Politics, 60(03), pp.780--800.
Ruffin, M. (2002). Book Review: Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion, Marina Ottaway and Thomas Carothers (eds.), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC, 2000. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 13(1), pp.94--95.