Civil Society Oversight in Afghanistan and Nepal

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Introduction What is state security? It is thought to be the maintenance and stability of a state, but when it comes to a failing state, security becomes more than just that. Security begins to take on a whole new meaning. Added to maintenance and stability, security means the safety and welfare of the citizens of that particular state.1 Civil Society is the part of society that consists of organizations and institutions that help protect human rights such as freedom of speech. These organizations are called non-government organizations (NGOs). They fight to maintain peace and protect basic human rights for the people. Afghanistan and Nepal are perfect examples of states where the security sector has failed and the citizens have been stripped of their basic human rights. Most NGOs in Afghanistan and Nepal focus mainly on women and children, such as Action Contre La Faim in Nepal and YWC (Young Women for Change) in Kabul.2 Not all organizations focus on women and children. Examples are AMDA MINDS (AMDA Multisectoral and Integrated Development Services) in Nepal which promotes the health and the well-being of underprivileged people through their empowerment, and the AIHRC (Afghan Independent Human Rights Commision), which is located in Kabul and promotes human rights in Afghanistan.3 When citizens of a country have obtained their basic human rights, civilian society oversight is possible which is base for a strong security sector. Civilian society oversight is civilian control of military, budgets, and policies. Without the implementation of an organized central government to secure the rights and protect the public body in Afghanistan and Nepal, ensuring adequate civilian society oversight within the security sector is impossible.... ... middle of paper ... ...e of Peace, (http://www.usip.org/publications/security-sector-reform-in-nepal-the-role-of-civil-society), 2. 10Ibid, 1. 11"Welcome." Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, (http://www.berghof-handbook.net/), i. 12Ibid, i. 13Chandra Bhatta, Security Sector Reform and the Role of Oversight Agencies: Parliament, Civil Society and Media, (London: Saferworld, 2009), 178-179. 14Tetra Tech ARD, "Building Local Capacity Development and Civil Society in Post-Conflict Nepal," (USAID. http://transition.usaid.gov/performance/lcd/02TetraTech.pdf), 1. 15"Welcome." Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, (http://www.berghof-handbook.net/), 1. 16Signposting Success: Civil Society in Afghanistan , (Kabul: Altai Consulting , 2012), 16. 17Anti-corruption Strategic Plan 2011-2013, (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan High Office of Oversight and Anti-corruption, 2010), .

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