Heel pain is one of the most common ailments of most people. The main reason or cause of this pain is overuse, or injury of heel. The intensity of the pain can vary between little, to unbearable. This pain is associated with the heel bone, which is the largest of all the 26 bones in a human feet. Sometimes, the pain may ease of on its own without any treatment.
Skin damage following any minor trauma will lead to foot infection and abscess formation that eventually leads to ulceration. Motor neuropathy leads to atrophy of the interosseous and lumbricales muscles that lead to claw deformity of the toes and foot arch. These deformities lead to areas of high pressure at the head of the metatarsal bones that may not be noticed by patients as they usually have sensory loss. The autonomic neuropathy leads to altered blood flow regulation and diminished sweating which is responsible for dry skin and fissures, consequently patient’s feet will be prone to infection and ulcers. Arterial Insufficiency Although diabetic patients have warm swollen feet, they have reduced capillary flow as result of the microangiopathy which causes arteriovenous shunts.
The patient has a history of Crohn's Disease and in 1997 underwent a sigmoid colon resection. She also has a history of diverticulitis and COPD. Her final diagnosis consists of back pain related to degenerative joint disease of the lumbrosacral spine as a result of osteoarthritis. A. Description of the Disease - Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis can cause the breakdown of cartilage between the facet joints.
Radicular pain is defined as pain radiating in the distribution of spinal nerve caused by the irritation of the dorsal root ganglion while discogenic pain is an axial pain originating in a degenerative disc.     Considred to be a critical part of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column, the structural component of the invertebral disc make it capable of changing shape and absorbing shock thus allowing movement. The dysfunction of the intervertebral disc is brought about by multiple factors namely trauma, aging or the degenerative disorders of the spine.  The boundary between nucleus and annulus become less evident as a person ages, furthermore as a person grow older the nucleus of the intervertebral disc becomes less gel-like and more fibrotic. Trauma results from activities such as slipping, lifiting while in a flexed position, suppressing a sneeze or falling on the buttocks.
RA is a painful, debilitating disease that causes stiff and tender joints and affects the heart, skin, and other organs (Scott, Wolfe, and Huizinga 2010). RA is characterized by joint inflammation and swelling, production of antibodies including anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor, destruction of cartilage and bone (see figure 1. ), and several comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, and malignancies (McInnes and Schett 2011; Clancy and Hasthorpe 2011). The highest prevalence rates occur in the elderly and in females. The disease normally manifests between the ages of 40 and 60, but can occur at any age (“Rheumatoid Arthritis” 2014).
It affects all races, but it affects three times as many women than men (What is Rheumatoid Arthritis, n.d.). Overtime, rheumatoid arthritis causes painful swelling that can potentially result in bone erosion or joint deformity, which leads up to physical disabilities. RA can affect more than just your joints, but can spread to body systems, skin, eyes, lungs, heart, blood vessels, e.t.c (Rheumatoid arthritis, 2017). Diagnosis Rheumatoid arthritis is usually
( Mayo Clinic) Different types of joint pain Osteoarthritis Basic Infromation Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most well know chronic condition of the joints, it effects on average 27 million Americans. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint, but it is most
Arthritis (RA) Would you believe that 350 million people worldwide have Arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease, which means that your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake, causing inflammation (painful swelling) in the affected parts of the body. RA mainly attacks the joints, usually many joints at once. RA commonly affects joints in the hands, wrists, and knees. In a joint with RA, the lining of the joint becomes inflamed, causing damage to joint tissue.
Some people may experience mild rectal pain. Proctosigmoiditis involves the rectum and the lower end of the colon (the sigmoid colon). Common symptoms of this form of UC are bloody diarrhea, an inability to make bowel movements known as tenesmus, and abdominal pain. In Left-sided colitis inflammation occurs in the rectum up through the sigmoid and descending colon, located on the left side of the abdomen. Common symptoms include bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain concentrated on the left side, and unintended weight loss.
The anachronism IBD stands for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the two main IBDs are Chron’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, both of which are considered to be primary autoimmune disorders. These occur when the immune system mistakenly targets and damages healthy tissue and cells. IBD symptoms and onset can occur at any time of life but most commonly present as a young adult, aged 15-30, although a later life peak between the ages of 50-70 has also been observed, at a much lower incidence. The common symptoms for these diseases are; • Severe abdominal pain • Bloody and frequent diarrhoea • Dehydration • Acute weight loss • The urgency to defecate immediately after eating • Loud stomach noises • Bowel incontinence • Fever • Extreme fatigue Although both Chron’s and UC have similar symptoms they are two distinctly different diseases. Chron’s disease can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the rectum.