This information is a sequence of four nucleotides arranged in a specific pattern. For example, cows have 80% of a human's DNA. DNA provides the map of the proteins and genes we express in each individual, and without it, we would be a totally different person. Besides DNA, nucleic acids also perform other functions in our body, but the role it plays in the formation of DNA is the most important. Let's break down what DNA really is.
DNA is made up of many sets of genes, which therefore provide the chemical codes for all proteins that create an organism. Generally, DNA is comprehended that the gene coding definitively decides the gene expression
Each organism has a characteristic number of chromosomes which control their hereditary information. Humans contain forty-six chromosomes in ... ... middle of paper ... ...ed on the fact that all organisms are made up of the same four nitrogenous bases combining to form nucleotides. From the simplest of bacteria millions of years ago, to the most complex structures and systems found in mammals today, all organisms are comprised of the same nucleotides, merely arranged differently. These nucleotides, which form the genetic code, are transferred from one generation to the next through DNA in either asexual or sexual reproduction. Over millions of years of evolution and adapting to ever changing environments, organisms continue to pass down hereditary information to their offspring (Steitz undated).
Each type of protein has its own unique sequence of amino acids. Also each protein makes every living organism different. Bibliography: 1. Proteins, Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, 1989 Volume 15, pg.576. 2. www.biotech.imcb.edu.com 3. http://www.faseb.org/protein.html 4.
The coiled alpha helix structure is what creates the classic X chromosome shape. These structure help to coil and condense the DNA chains so that all the information can fit into the nucleus of the cell. Contained within the DNA are lines of code made up of ‘nucleotide bases’, these bases are made up of 4 nucleotides; Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). Each of these bases are made up from a phosphate group, a pentose sugar and an organic nitrogen containing base. When these bases come together in DNA they all have corresponding bases.
The normal gene is transported by a carrier called a vector which is usually a virus due to their nature of attacking the sufferer’s body and inserting their genetic material, however, the viral vector is modified so it cannot cause the patient any harm. Once the vector has released the correct gene into the cell, the cell then begins to produce the correct proteins. Gene therapy can be very useful in the field of science as it can help discover different methods of inserting genetic material into a cell. Genetic engineering isn’t only advantageous in medicine, but also in farming as farmers will have the freedom of choice when it comes to selecting the type of ... ... middle of paper ... ...he protein of the desired characteristics. These characteristics can include physical appearance, preventing genetic disorders and even intelligence although, there are many ethical issues surrounding this particular use of DNA technology.
Sometimes DNA can be found in bacterial cells and in viruses (Rubenstein, 2006). DNA is made of many different resources found in a human body; chemicals, bases, and more. Deoxyribonucleic acid is made of three basic chemical building blocks; a Phosphate group, a Sugar group, and 1 of 4 nitrogen bases. DNA is made of 3 billon bases (National Human, 2008), 99% of these bases are the same in all humans (“U.S. National”, 2009), and the order and amount of the bases determines that humans unique self (Rubenstein, 2006).
The first function is to provide for protein synthesis, allowing growth and development of the organism. The second function is to give all of it’s descendants it’s own protein- synthesizing information by replicating itself and providing each offspring with a copy. The informat... ... middle of paper ... ... were slid along the mRNA until their nucleotides matched. Conclusions: The most surprising discovery made was finding out that there are only four main bases needed in a DNA and RNA molecule. Also, each of these bases will only bond with one other base.
A genetically engineered or “transgenic” animal is an animal that carries a known sequence of recombinant DNA in its cells and which passes to its offspring. Recombinant DNA refers to DNA fragments that have been joined together in a laboratory. The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the proteins that are encoded by the genes included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant, or a microbe. The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), is defined as a heredity material in humans or all over other organisms in this world. In a person’s body, nearly every cell has a same DNA. Mostly DNA can be found in cell nucleus and few are found in Mitochondria. (Christine A.Evers, 2012). • COMPONENTS OF DNA: The DNA information is stored as a code and they are made up of four chemical bases: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine(C) • Thymine (T) According to my opinion, DNA just affects about everything in a human body, DNA holds all the information needed to proteins and all other traits also that directly affect an organism’s phenotype.DNA is more complex because it can determine certain deformities or diseases like cancer or sickle cell anemia etc.