At high temperatures Platinum also reacts with Chlorine, Fluorine, Phosphorus, Arsenic and Sulfur. Among the transition metals, Platinum has the greatest tendencies to bond directly with Carbon. Platinum is used extensively in modern industrial society because of its chemical inertness, high melting point, and extraordinary catalytic properties. platinum is valuable for laboratory apparatus, such as tongs, combustion boats, crucibles and evaoporating dishes. It is also used for thermometers in furnaces, for electrodes in making quantitative chemical analyses, and for corrosion and heat-resistant instruments.
It occurs as a mineral in nature, but it can be made artificially from amorphous carbon. One of the main uses for graphite is for its lubricating qualities. Another is for the "lead" in pencils. Graphite is used as a heat resistant material and an electricity conductor. It is also used in nuclear reactors as a lubricator (Kinoshita 119-127).
Bainite, pearlite and ferrite formed through annealing. In the other hand, the Hardening processes consist of quenching and tempering. They help in developing the appropriate bulk and surface properties. Martensite can be found in the structure of hardened or quenched steel. Martensite is a hard but brittle structure which needs tempering.
Some of the chemicals in the fracking fluid and wastewater have been identified as carcinogens. Many of the other chemicals have been found to be harmful to humans (Environmental). According to Griswold, author of the article “The Fracturing of Pennsylvania,” wastewater is a combination of different chemicals that come from the process of fracking. Not only does this wastewater contain chemicals that were originally used in the drilling, but it also contains harmful substances that come from the earth like salts and other compounds (Griswold). Hundreds of chemicals are used during Marcellus Shale drilling; therefore, the process can cause contamination and pollution.
[1–3}( 1- 16 dey91]. Cerium is an important element in the lanthanides group and widely used in production of ductile iron, cast iron and aluminum alloys and some stainless steels . Cerium due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air. Then, this can cause lung embolisms. When it accumulates in body, it can be a menace to liver.
Print. 53-55). Arsenic, a naturally occurring carcinogen, can also increase the risk of lung cancer as well as skin cancer. Humans are exposed to arsenic in medicines, drinking water and in occupations such as mining, copper smelting (removal of copper from rock through means of heating), and glass making (National Toxicology Program. Print.
Some beryllium combines with a protein and is deposited in the liver, spleen and kidneys, but the beryllium when bound with a biological protein, a hapten, can result in the chronic form of the disease which is believed to be a delayed hypersensitivity immune response. The major toxicological effects of beryllium are on the respiratory tract,specifically the lungs and their alveoli. Beryllium and its unique characteristic led to it being used widely in a variety of industries prior to is know toxic effects. Today it is know that beryllium is a highly toxic material which results in devastating toxic effects on the lungs. There has been drastic increases in the regulation in beryllium use so as to protect those that directly handle and work with the metal.
The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO (OH)), limonite (FeO (OH).n (H2O)), siderite (FeCO3) and iron pyrites (FeS2). The main iron ore is Haematite. The iron ore contains impurities, mainly silica (silicon dioxide). Since iron is below carbon in the reactivity series, so it can push out or displace the iron from iron oxide.
Hydraulic Fracking is a process to extract fluids that are trapped beneath the Earth’s surface. While this technique has allowed for an efficient and cost-effective way to tap into natural gas reserves, there are considerable environmental and health risks that have arisen. Over 596 chemicals are involved in the fracking process itself and many of these have been suspected of posing a significant risk to human physiology. There have also been several reports of physical disorders occurring in animals and people living around fracking well sites. Water from nearby areas has shown to display anti-estrogenic and androgenic properties that can impact endocrine function.
When iron and oxygen come together to make iron oxide, heat is given off. This means that the reaction that takes place is exothermic . Acid solutions are widely used in various industrial processes such as oil well acidification, oil pickling and acidic cleaning which generally leads to metallic corrosion [2-3]. There is a considerable amount of effort put in to develop efficient corrosion impediments. Organic compounds usually serve as impediments, and generally protect the metal from corrosion by forming a protection film on the metal surface .