Chlorine readily reacts with metals to form chlorides, most of which are soluble in water. Chlorine also reacts directly with many nonmetals such as sulfur, phosphorus, and other halogens. Chlorine can support combustion; if a candle were to be thrown into a vessel of chlorine, it would continue to burn, releasing dense, black clouds of smoke, The chlorine combines with hydrogen of the paraffin, forming hydrogen chloride, and uncombined carbon is left in the form of soot. Soot is black residue from fuel. Chlorine replaces iodine and bromine from their salts.
Mercury was first distinguished as an element by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in his experiment on the composition of air. At room temperature mercury is a shining, moving liquid that has a silvery-white color, and slightly volatile. Mercury remains a liquid over a wide temperature range. Mercury is a solid when given a pressure of 7640 atmospheres (5.8 million torrs). It dissolves in nitric or concentrated sulfuric acid but is resistant to alkalies.
Like most gaseous elements it is diatomic (its molecules contain two atoms), but it dissociates into free atoms at high temperatures. Hydrogen has a lower boiling point and melting point than any other substance except helium. Liquid hydrogen, first obtained by the British chemist Sir James Dewar in 1898, is colorless (but light blue in thick layers) with sp.gr. 0.070. when allowed to evaporate rapidly under reduced pressure it freezes into a colorless solid. Hydrogen is a mixture of two allotropic forms, orthohydrogen and parahydrogen, ordinary hydrogen containing about three-fourths of the ortho form and one-fourth of the para form.
Sodium was first discovered and isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807. Sodium is located in column 1 of the periodic table where all other alkali earth metals, which all of them have only 1 electron which it would happily give to another element that wants it so that it could be “happy” this then creates a positively charge atom also known as a cation. You could also find sodium by knowing its electron configuration which is [Ne] 3s1. Sodium physical properties are that it is silver in color and is a soft metal, so soft that in its pure form it could be cut with a knife. Sodium is a solid at room temperature, but it reaches its boiling point at around 208̊ Fahrenheit.
In this report, you will learn how oxygen, in its many forms, is very important. Oxygen was first discovered in 1774 by the British chemist Joseph Priestley, when he decomposed mercury II oxide into its elements by heating it. Karl Wilhelm Scheel, a Swedish chemist, discovered it when he heated manganese dioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid.. French chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, proved it was an elemental gas, through his experiments on combustion. He also gave oxygen its name. In 1929, W.F.
They are -111°C and -107°C respectively. Xenon and most of the other noble gases were discovered by Sir William Ramsey and M.W. Travers from England in 1898. The two scientists discovered it mistakenly while experimenting with crude krypton, another noble gas. They were separating the elements in the crude krypton through a process called fractional distillation.
If all of the energy levels in the atom are full populated with electrons, it is said to be stable, and in most cases, is therefore unreactive. Examples of this include the noble (or inert) gases such as neon or argon. However if the outer energy level of the atom is not stable, it will automatically try to either gain or lose electrons to become stable. This is achieved by an ionic reaction. Ionic bonding occurs when the outer atoms of on material changes orbit and joins another material for example: Sodium chloride As you can see, sodium is a group one metal (it has one electron on its outer energy level) so is therefore unstable.
Fluorine is a corrosive, pale yellow gas and is the smallest of the Halogen group but also the element with the highest electronegativity in the Periodic Table. With such a high electronegativity it makes fluorine the most reactive of all of the elements. The high electronegativity of fluorine is beneficial in several goods, for example; polymers, toothpastes, pesticides, cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Fluorochloro-hydrocarbons are widely used in air conditioners and refrigerators, and have been associated with the vanishing of the ozone layer (Stillinger, 1988). Teflon, the non-stick polymer, is a series of carbon-fluorine chains.
Water is the common name applied to the liquid state of the hydrogen-oxygen compound H2O. In 1804, the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt demonstrated that water consists of two volumes of hydrogen to one of oxygen, as it is shown in the present-day formula H2O. · Properties Pure water is an odorless, tasteless liquid. It has a bluish color, which may be detected, however, only in layers of considerable depth. Under standard atmospheric pressure (760 mm of mercury), the freezing point of water is 0° C and its boiling point is 100° C .
A Lewis acid is any substance that accepts a lone pair of electrons.A strong acid is one that breaks apart close to 100% when in solution (example HCl). When dissolved in water, HCl breaks apart into H+ and Cl- ions. Not all acids break apart. A weak acid is/are chemicals that do not break apart well. Acids have a sour taste, they are: corrosive and electrolytes.