At first Americans looked up them with curiosity and favor, and accepted their arrival. Yet soon thereafter this favor turned to violence, as riots against the Chinese broke out towards the late nineteenth century. The Chinese did not only mine for gold, but took on jobs such as cooks, peddlers, and storekeepers. In the first decade after the discovery of gold, many had taken jobs nobody else wanted or that were considered too dirty. However, in 1870, hasty exploitation of gold mines and a lack of well-paying jobs for non-Asians spurred sentiment that the "rice-eaters" were to blame.
After the first wave of Chinese immigrants arrived in the United States in the early 1840s during the California Gold Rush, many Chinese people continued to travel across the Pacific, escaping poor conditions in China with hopes and ambitions for a better life in America. Many more Chinese immigrants began arriving into the 1860s on the Pacific coast for work in other areas such as the railroad industry. The immigrants noticed an increasing demand for their labor because of their readiness to work for low wages. Many of those who arrived did not plan to stay long, and therefore there was no push for their naturalization. The immigrants left a country with thousands of years of a “decaying feudal system,” corruption, a growing population, and the downfall of the Qing dynasty.
Families of Chinese immigrants already living here were permitted to move to the United States as well. Between 1965 and 1984, 419,000 Chinese came to the U.S. This was greater than the total number of people that immigrated the whole previous century. By 1985, New York's Chinatown, which had never had more than 15,000 people at one time, was now home to 100,000 Chinese immigrants. The second wave, unlike the first, was comprised of more females than males.
They also thought to stockpile the money and bring back to China with them. The main and most important reason the Chinese immigrated was the economic hardship in China due to the British dominance over the country, after Britain defeated China in the Opium War of 1839-1842. The United States resented the Chinese for invading their borders. As one San Francisco newspaper said, “Step up to the front…and battle to hold the Pacific Coast for the white race.” (32) Americans looked down and condemned the Chinese because of their race. The way the Chinese dressed, and styled their hair made the Americans perceive them of not having proper gender roles.
This devastating issue made the Chinese community hassle knowing that the European would be invading. After the Chinese surrender had occurred towards Brittan, they were told to pay a massive fee. The payment had affected the annual intake of China’s treasury, which eventually was paid through higher taxes of their citizens. Since... ... middle of paper ... ... deserved and the education they had hoped there kid’s generation would receive. After working on the railroads, the gold mines, the construction, and the fishing, they had realized that this was going to be there home.
When tension between the two nations grew due to American discrimination against Japanese immigrants. Leland Stanford and his associates were building the western section of the Trans- Continental railroad across the United States. They employed Chinese laborers because they were cheaper and more efficient than European laborers. After the railroad was complete the Chinese sought work in the American labor market. American workers began to oppose this new labor force, the Government responded by passing the Chinese Exclusion Acts, forcing most of the Chinese to return to China.
What’s Mainland Chinese Immigrants’ Life Like in the U.S.? It was said by the Wall Street Journal that due to American uncertain economic resurgence, after three-year rapid growing, the amount of immigrants into the United States reduced in 2013. On the contrary, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, the proportion of global immigration to America was actually growing from 1990 to 2013, and the population of Asian Americans grew about 46% in the last decade, which was faster than other race Americans (Hoeffel, Rastogi, Kim, and Shahid). About 23% of these Asian Americans are from China (Hoeffel et al. ), and in China, there are an increasing number of Chinese tending to immigrate to the United States.
While half of Chinese people live in the rural areas, the urban population is growing rapidly. In January 2012, urban population has exceeded the rural population for the first time. Now about 100 million rural people become migrant workers which move in and out the cities in search of work. This has caused many problems in China , since in the past and the present day, such as traffic jams in the city, pollution, and most importantly the shortage of food and shelter. This might affect the Chinese economic as well.
In 2014, the United States of America imported more than 466 billion U.S. dollars of Chinese manufactured goods. In 2000, China was only responsible for 100 billion U.S. dollars’ worth of imported goods to the U.S. China’s economic growth has been tremendous within the past 14 years (U.S. Department of Commerce). More and more manufacturers have been moving their overseas businesses to China in hopes to reduce the cost of manufacturing. Well-known companies such as Nike, ExxonMobil, DuPont, Whirlpool and Apple, have some portion of their company outsourced to China. Between the years 2001 and 2013 there has been a steady trend of manufacturing jobs leaving America, which totaled to about 3.2 million positions (Katherine Peralta).
Throughout the Gold Rush, members of the Chinese labor force played significant roles in both the social and economic development of the American West, particularly with regards to the construction of the transcontinental railroad. As gold discoveries slowed down and the Civil War gradually came to an end, the First Transcontinental Railroad was finally completed between Omaha and Sacramento. Over time, unemployment began rising across the country, especially in California, where a vast majority of Chinese immigrants resided in. The welcoming of Chinese immigrants slowly began to wear off as the white working class perceived a threat to their livelihood that these immigrants could potentially cause, leading to an increase in racial tensions. These growing tensions culminated in the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and eventually closed U.S. borders to all Chinese laborers, with the exception of ethnic Chinese individuals.