Under the Mao republic, leaders saw the population development as a danger to the nation’s economy (White 1994). The political party promoted childbirth in the 1950s and 1960s according to the slogan “one is a good few, two is just enough, and three is over” (White 1994). However these efforts were not successful and there were 250 million additional people in the 1970s. More steps were taken to encourage population control. These steps included focusing on contraceptive and abortion services in the countryside and encouraging later marriages.
The policy was created in 1979 and set a strong limit of one child per family. However, modern-day China is currently working off of a change proposed in 1984, which changed the policy to work off of a 1.5-child per couple. This change allowed some families to have another child, but only if their first born was a female. Most provinces have also allowed rural couples to have another child a few years after the birth of their first. This relaxed policy also permitted minority couples to have two or more children in an effort to increase diversity.
Scott, Robert E. “The China Toll.” Economic Policy Institute. 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp345-china-growing-trade-deficit-cost/ U.S. Census Bureau. “Trade in Goods with China.” U.S. International Trade Data.
19 Jan. 2012. Yang Mingliang, et al. "China's One-Child Policy And The Care Of Children: An Analysis Of Qualitative And Quantitative Data." Social Forces 79.3 (2001): 913-943. Academic Search Elite.
The law was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit China's population growth, and to conserve resources. The One Child Policy was designed to be temporary; however, it still continues to this day. The policy limits couples to have one child only. Consequences such as: fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and even forced sterilization accompanied second or subsequent pregnancies (Rosenberg). The policy was initially more like a voluntary agreement; where families who decided to have only one child would get full benefits for that child.
With the loss of their leader, Mao Zedong, in 1976, the government feared not being able to provide for the growing population (Scutti). Therefore, China focused their efforts on controlling the population growth in the mid-1970s with multiple policies. At this time, India and the United States also made efforts to decrease their own populations, such as sterilizations (Anders). With the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1976, birth control and family planning had been promoted and continued to be voluntary until Mao’s death later that same year. The... ... middle of paper ... ...ses One-Child Policy."
Web. 8 Nov. 2013 Bongaarts, John, and Susan Greenhalgh. “An Alternative to the One-Child Policy in China.” Population and Development Review 11.4 (1985): 585-617. JSTOR. Population Council.