When an international force of 2,100 soldiers attempted to land in China, the Empress Dowager ordered her imperial army to stop the foreign troops. The "Boxer Rebellion" was the name the European and American newspapers gave to a religious, anti-foreign uprising in China in 1900. The Boxers were consisted mainly of martial artists that targeted Christian missionaries in Chi... ... middle of paper ... ...st like the two opium wars before, the consequences were drastic. The failure of the Boxer Rebellion brought increased foreign influence into China. This was an excuse for the powerful countries of Europe, American and Japan to interfere with and take partial control over China.
Traditionalist and Reformers continually clashed during the 1800’s through the mid 1940’s. Traditionalist wanted to keep all western influence out, while the reformist concluded that without reform their societies would continually be dominated by the west. The Reformist was generally more successful in eventually establishing independence with some exceptions. The era of western imperialism in Asia was gradual as the western powers being the Dutch at first and then the British created unfair treaties with the Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian countries. One of the most oppressive controls the British had over the Chinese had to do with the Opium trade.
However, anti-foreign sentiment had risen so greatly in China that the Empress Dowager ,ruler of China, believed that the secret societies could be the leaders in a military deportation of Europeans. This policy reached its crucial period in 1900 with the Boxer Rebellion. The Boxers, or “The Righteous and Harmonious Fists,'; were a religious society that had originally rebelled against the imperial government in Shantung in 1898. They practiced an animistic magic of rituals and spells that they believed made them invulnerable to bullets and pain. The Boxers believed that the expulsion of foreign devils would magically renew Chinese society and begin a new golden age.
The two battles fought and won by European powers were known as the Opium Wars. China’s politics, economy, and intellects were both positively and negatively impacted by allowing more religious freedom but having less control over its own politics, increasing foreign trade but destroying domestic industries, and having increasing nationalistic feelings while adapting Western values. European powers exerted more control over Chinese land, laws, and foreign policies because of the Opium Wars. After the First Opium War, China was forced to sign the unequal Treaty of Nanking in 1842. The terms stated that besides the port in Canton, four additional ports in Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai, and Ningbo were to be opened to foreign trade.
The wars demonstrated the military differential between China and Europe. The British used ships powered by steam to attack the Grand Canal, and China realizing that conquest was unavoidable, began the necessary preparations for a cease fire. As a result of these defeats, China was subjected to what came to be known as the Favorite Nation Treaties (FNT). China was forced legalize the opium trade, to surrender Hong Kong to Britain, permit the establishment of Christian missions, open ports to commerce, and not impose tariffs on imports. By 1900, the majority of Chinese sea ports were under the effective control of Western powers, foreign nations controlled much of the Chinese economy.
Even the ancient Romans would have been envious of its size. (Walker 15-19) Religion was one of the compelling motives behind the actions and ambitions of Spain. Philip's father, Emperor Charles V, had established himself as the guardian of Christendom. He also had the dream of uniting all of the Christian European nations against the Turks and the Moors, who had been terrorizing Catholicism from one end of the Mediterranean to the other. However, his dreams were hindered with the coming of the Protestant Reformation, which split Christendom into two parts.
Second, Britain had a surplus of Opium, a drug grown in India, and it needed vast numbers of people to purchase it. China traded peacefully although reluctantly with Britain, until the government noticed the negative effects of the drug on its people. The opium trade was then outlawed promptly by the Chinese government. The substance, however, was still smuggled into the country. The Chinese government confronted the British regarding the smuggling and this sparked the Opium War (1899-1902).
It was no longer like before that China could get tributes from other countries; instead, China had to open foreign trade ports, ceded Hong Kong, paid a big amount of money to British, and allowed them to practice extraterritoriality. It was due to Chinese’s over confidence. They should learn from it because the opium war taught them that if a person is always close himself or herself up and think he or she is the strongest one, he or she can never learn to develop
A main imperialistic power, Great Britain, began trading China opium, a heavily addictive drug, in exchange for tea and silk. At first, it seemed like a positive idea – the Chinese previously used opium for medicinal purposes. With little time, the government began to realize to the greatest extent the deterioration opium caused and how they must be wary of Great Britain. In an attempt to delete Great Britain’s influence, the Chinese began attacking British cargo ships. Thus began the Opium War and Great Britain’s evident influences in China.
By the end of the First Opium War China had begun to lose its sense of identity through the use of treaties and encroachment of foreign countries, starting with the British and their Treaty of Nanking. Throughout the years Britain had always tried to use the Chinese markets to their advantage. This is what was seen as the biggest and only cause towards starting the First Opium War. Although the British were gaining a profit from selling their own goods to Chinese consumers, they were not making enough to counter the massive amount of spending they were doing on Chines... ... middle of paper ... ... to the Treaty of Nanking creating new ports for foreigners and allowing them to live lives contrary to what was expected of the people of China. The Chinese man had become addicted and it was just getting easier for him to get the opium he needed to satisfy his need, but in order to attain the opium he was leaving behind everything that his country had taught him about his sense of self.