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Family functioning among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(1), 60-67. Wilkinson, G.B., Taylor, P., & Holt, J.R. (2002). Bipolar disorder in adolescence: Diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(4), 348-357.
Children who experience any form of abuse will tend to withdraw themselves from their peers and sometimes from other family members who are not aware of what is taking place. Child abuse occurs not just in the homes of these children, but can also occur in schools, churches and after school programs. Anywhere a child is present there is a chance that abuse can occur. This paper will review the forms of child abuse, the effects of child abuse, reasons child abuse occurs and possible therapies to bring healing in the parties involved. Forms & Definition of Child Abuse Physical Abuse According to Trickett, Negreff, Ji and Peckins, physical abuse is defined as, “…any nonaccidental physical injury to a child (resulting from such acts such as striking, kicking, burning) perpetrated by a parent or caregiver” (2011).
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 320-332. ). Jaycox, L., Stein, B., Paddock, S., Miles, J., Chandra, A., Meredith, L., Tanielian, T., Hickey, S., & Burnam, M.. (2009). Impact of Teen Depression on Academic, Social, and Physical Functioning. Pediatrics, 124(4), E596.
Life-span developmental outcomes of child maltreatment. The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research (pp. 1-32). London: Guilford. Teisl, M., & Cicchetti, D. (2008).
Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Community Practitioner, 84(12), 33-35. Schiraldi, G. R. (2009). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook. (2nd ed.).
A Successful intimate relationship must have a support network to try and manage PTSD. If a child expresses their feelings and are able to be open up about the experienced violence, a relationship attachment benefits them by reducing isolation and helping them to feel supported. Early intervention is the key to overcoming trauma. Types of help for children are: A therapist and a Child psychologist. A support network to manage PTSD The child must be able to express their feelings and be to open up towards others.
Clinical Practice of Cognitive Therapy with Children and Adolescents. New York: The Guildord Press. Rauch, S. A. M., & Cahill, S. P. (2003). Treatment and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder. Primary Psychiatry.10(8), 60-65.