Child Labor and England’s Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution in nineteenth-century England brought about many changes in British society. It was the advent of faster means of production, growing wealth for the Nation and a surplus of new jobs for thousands of people living in poverty. Cities were growing too fast to adequately house the numerous people pouring in, thus leading to squalid living conditions, increased filth and disease, and the families reliance upon their children to survive. The exploitation of children hit an all time peak in Britain when generations of its youth were sacrificed to child labor and the “Coffers” of England. From the late 18th century to the mid 19th century, the economy in England was transformed from an agricultural to a manufacturing –based economy. In 1801, agriculture provided employment for 36% of the British population. By 1851, only 10% of the British population was employed in agriculture, while over 40% was employed in industry (Hopkins, 36). As a direct result of this transformation, a surplus of jobs were created and displaced farming families moved in to fill them. Factory and Mine owners exploited the situation by offering families a means to make more money, by putting their children to work. Industry profited from this arrangement by saving money, since child labor was more “cost effective”. According to one historian, Clark Nardinelli, “in 1835 56,000 children under the age of thirteen were working in textile factories alone. By 1874, the number of child laborers in the market hit its peak with over 122,000 children between the ages of 10 and thirteen working in textile factories (4).” ... ... middle of paper ... ...om Cruickshank, Marjorie. (1981). Children and Industry. Oxford, Manchester: Manchester University Press. Dreary, T. (1994). The Vile Victorians. London, United Kingdom: Scholastic Publications Ltd. Evans, R. M.(1979). Children Working Underground. Cardiff, Wales: McLays. Horn, Pamela. (1994). Children’s Work and Welfare, 1780-1880’s. Houndsmills, Basingshtoke, Hampshire, London: The MacMillion Press. Hopkins, E. (1994). Childhood transformed. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Jordan, T. (1987). Victorian Childhood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Nardinelli, C. (1990). Child Labor and The Industrial Revolution. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Spartacus Encyclopedia. (1997). Home page. British History 1700-1950. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk./IRchild.main.htm.
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For the first time in history children were an important factor of the economic system, but at a terrible price. The master of the factories employed children for two reasons. One, because of their small body which can get inside the machines to clean it and use their nimble fingers. Second, the masters use to pay low wages to the children who could be easily manipulated. The average age for the parents to send their children to work was ten. Although, Conventional wisdom dictates that the age at which children started work was connected to the poverty of the family. Griffith presents two autobiographies to put across her point. Autobiography of Edward Davis who lacked even the basic necessities of life because of his father’s heavy drinking habit and was forced to join work at a small age of six, whereas the memoir of Richard Boswell tells the opposite. He was raised up in an affluent family who studied in a boarding school. He was taken out of school at the age of thirteen to become a draper’s apprentice. The author goes further and places child employees into three groups, according to the kind of jobs that were available in their neighbourhood. First group composed of children living in rural areas with no domestic industry to work in. Therefore, the average of a child to work in rural area was ten. Before that, farmers use to assign small jobs to the children such as scaring birds, keeping sheep
This oppression of the Third Estate along with the financial problems that fell on the common people would lead to the French Revolution. Overall, the people of France revolted against the monarchy because of the unsuccessful estate system and the inequality it led to, because of the new enlightenment ideas that inspired them, and because of the failures of the monarchy.
During the Industrial Revolution, children were used for labor to do the more dangerous activities in the factories. For example, children were often used to squeeze into tight places, because they were much smaller than men. (Labor) Most children worked in the mills to support their families, but had to give up their education in return. (“Modern World History”) In document four, Hebergram’s brother died by being cut from a machine, and later dying from infection. This shows that the factories did not have protection of covering the machines, causing many workers to die. Also, in document four it says, “...A boy was caught in a machine and had both his thigh bones broke and from his knee to his hip the flesh was ripped up the same as it had been cut by a knife.” This shows how unsafe the machines were because the shaft was not covered.
The free speech clause in the Bill of Rights states: “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech” (US Const., amend I). This clause, albeit consists of a mere ten words, holds much power and affluence in the American unique way of life. It guarantees Americans the right to speak freely without censorship by preventing the government from restricting the rights of the people to express their opinions. Consequently, this freedom can encourage citizens’ participation in politics; promote an adaptable and tolerant community; facilitate the discovery of truth; and ultimately create a stable nation. However, how much freedom should be granted to an individual? Where should the line be drawn for the coverage free speech protection? (1) What happens when the exercise of free speech puts other constitutional values in jeopardy? What values should prevail? (2) In an attempt to address these questions, many opposing interpretations have been presented. While some construe this clause in an absolute, categorical approach, others take on a more lenient, balancing stance. (1)
Children were useful as laborers because their size allowed them to move in small spaces in factories or mines where adults couldn’t fit, such as it was for chimney sweeping. Children were also easier to manage and control and could be paid less than adults. Supporters of child labor also argued that the employing children was beneficial to the family, the child, and to the country; the conditions were similar as it has been in cottages, farms, or up the chimneys. The work was simple enough for children and helped them make an obligatory contribution to the family’s income. To factory owners, employing children was seen as necessary for their products to remain competitive and for production to run smoothly. Additionally, Child labor can be used as a mean of preventing vice and idleness. Thus, child labor was seen as beneficial to society, to the children, and to the
Cotton production during the Industrial Revolution played an important role in English history. The revolution was brought on by the development of new technologies, which included the invention of machines capable of producing large amounts of cotton fabric. The resulting shift in cotton production from home to factory began in 1760 and was complete by about 1830. The industrialization of cotton production transformed England in many ways, including rapid urbanization and the introduction of children into the factory workforce. It can be argued the cotton industry would not have been so successful without the use of children; however the effects were detrimental to their well-being and eventually led to the passage of a series of laws to limit child labour.
Throughout history, children have always worked, either as apprentices or servants. However, child labor reached a whole new scale during the time period of the Industrial Revolution. Throughout the time frame of late 1800s-early 1900s, children worked long hours in dangerous factory conditions for very little wages. They were considered useful as laborers because their small stature allowed them to be cramped into smaller spaces, and they could be paid less for their services. Many worked to help support their families, and by doing so, they forwent their education. Numerous nineteenth century reformers and labor groups sought to restrict child labor and to improve working conditions.
The Industrial Revolution restructured the employer-employee relationship into an impersonal association exhibited by indifference to the quality of life of the worker. Children were especially exploited because they could be hired for lower wages and were made to work equally long days (Miller). Around the 1830s, children constituted about one-third of the labor in New England (Illinois Labor History Society). The conditions of workers as a whole necessitated action on behalf of the rights of laborers.
"Childhood Lost: Child Labor During the Industrial Revolution." Eastern Illinois University. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014.
At the beginning of the 1800’s most laborers worked at home. The family functioned together as a working unit for the common good of all its members. Children would stay at home to help until they got married. They usually did not become contributing members until they reached the age of ten. Girls started somewhat earlier because they would be assisting their mothers with the domestic economy(Gaskell, 91).
England was a society dominated by children. During the reign of Queen Victoria one out of three of her servants were under the age of fifteen. Child labor was a prominent issue, because there were no systems to ensure the safety of children. During the start of the industrial revolution, there was a “high demand” for labor (Robson 53). Many families moved from rural areas to new, industrialized cities. After a while things weren’t looking as “promising” as they did before (Boone 23). In order to maintain, families had to put almost all of their family members to work. This led to a rise in the number of child labor. Children were “mistreated, underpayed and overworked” (Kincaid 30). Using children to do all of the hard work, the mining companies believed, was the most sensible and efficient way to get the job done. Because the children were a lot smaller, it was easy for them to “maneuver through tight spaces” and on top of that the children demanded little or no pay at all(Boone 43 ). These wages were enough to persuade companies to use children for all sorts of dangerous jobs such as coal mining and chimney sweeps. Children were called to do many other “horrible” jobs, jobs that adults in this era could not bear, just so long as the bills were paid (Robson 18). The working conditions and treatment of young children during this era was horrible and a lot was done to put an end to it.
In conclusion, there were three major religions, three major religions that shared similarities such as karma, non-violence, founders that reached enlightenment, the tolerance of women, and of course impacting society. They also had differences which separated them from each other, making them unique, such as the Buddhists’ non-belief in God, the Jains splitting into two sects, and the Hindus’ belief in scriptures called Vedas. All three played an important part by influencing the people, giving them many choices in how they wished to live their lives, in the ancient times of the sub-continent, India.
In the late 1700’s and early 1800’s big business began to boom. For the first time companies were developing large factories to manufacture their goods. Due to the new mechanics and cheap labor, factory owners could now produce their goods at a cheaper rate. As big businesses brought wealth and capitalism, it also widened the gap between the wealthy elite and the poor. One class in particular was horribly affected by the growth of big factories. This class was the poor working class. According to the article “Child Labor in the United States” written by Robert Whaples, a big proportion of the labour work force was made up of children: “In 1820 children aged 15 and under made up 23 percent of the manufacturing labor force of the industrializing
The 1st amendment has obviously played a very large role in the history of the United States; by applying it to a host of different court cases, the government has been able to establish precedent and consistency (for the most part) regarding various situations that involve the free speech component of the 1st Amendment. Today, there is an abundance of issues regarding free speech, some still looking for an answer, others already having been established based on earlier rulings
Children that worked in factories were cheaper to hire than adults and could be manipulated with physical abuse to work extensive hours and for low wages. The Industrial Revolution brought population increase which equaled to more child workers. New factories were built which brought more jobs. These jobs led to more houses to be built and people flocked to the factories for the jobs. With a sustained income, families grew and thus the population increased. The population increase allowed for more child workers, which said before, were much cheaper labor than adults and they did not need to be skilled. Children would work 12-19 hours a day with minimal break time. They would get whipped, beaten and abused if they fell asleep on the job or if they were ever out of line, mostly the younger children were susceptible to this. There was no use for expensive skilled workers anymore because the Industrial Revolution brought machines which were easy to operate. The children did not need any special skills to operate the machines so the factory owners could pay them very little, often 10-20% of the salary of an adult. The factory owners profited greatly because of how little they had to pay their employees and how many items were produced and sold.