Child Development and the Process of Learning

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Before children learn to use language to let their needs and wants be known they first learn to read, understand adult’s behaviour as well as responding through behaviour (Bishop and Baird, 2007). Challenging behaviour contributes to children’s social-emotional development through expressing their feelings and reacting to certain experiences with or without control (Berk, 2006). Early childhood teachers struggle to deal and to help children with challenging behaviour that teachers themselves are searching for answers and solution. Teachers should know about challenging behaviour or do they have enough knowledge to help themselves when facing this situation. Therefore; is disciplining the children the same as positive guidance? This review will consider these questions using literature from articles and research in early childhood education and special education. Teachers struggle when dealing with challenging behaviour especially when a child refused to listen but not only that they throw themselves on the ground, kicking and screaming. Bishop and Baird (2007) explain challenging behaviour from the children’s point of view as their way of communicating that something is not right with their experience using pain or distress. In addition, children with no self control, maturity, less understanding and don’t know how to express emotions appropriately or tiredness respond through challenging behaviour (Flicker & Hoffman, 2002). As children with challenging behaviour find it hard to communicate to adults and their peers, Neece & Baker (2008) examined children of intellectual disabilities and how it affects the parents. Children with both challenging behaviour and anti-social skills stress the parents because they do not know how to de...

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...ctual disabilities. Finally as an early childhood teacher studying I have found this literature review very educational and helpful to my practice. To be a caring teacher I should be able to understand and provide positive guidance for the children with challenging behaviour. Using good observation and collaboration with parents and the communities will create knowledge, skills and strategies to use effective discipline for the children. As for myself I learnt the importance of working in a positive relationship with the parents, to respect and more understanding in their situation. It is my responsibility to use observation, reflection, goal setting and self-evaluation to generate and share new ideas. It would have been useful to have some New Zealand research or article that may include the New Zealand and Pacific Islands perspectives about challenging behaviour.
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