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Child Development: Growth And Development

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Growth and development is an ongoing process that begins at conception and continues through the remainder of our lives. The rate of development and growth varies dependent on many factors such as age and genetic disposition. There is a broad spectrum of physical and psychological changes that are part of the maturation and life of the individual. Growth is a physical change that can be weighed and measured. Development is a person’s behaviors and thinking patterns. Growth and development are processes that together make up the individual. Infants understand speech before their bodies have matured enough to physically perform it, speech patterns develop before the physical growth of their vocal chords. It is important to remember that…show more content…
There are four main types of parenting styles; authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved. The way parents raise their children sets the foundation from which they base every decision they make as they grow and develop. Authoritarian parenting, is low on warmth/nurturance, harsh, and strict on discipline, and high on expectation. Parents instruct and order, they do not consider the children 's opinion as a group, and discourage verbal give-and-take. With this parenting style, children are more susceptible to antisocial peer pressure during adolescence, a time when peer influence is the greatest. Boys in this category have the highest level of violence. Teenagers become less self-reliant, persistent, socially poised, and have lower self-esteem. Authoritative parenting is high on warmth, moderate on discipline, expectations of maturity, and high in communication. Parents are nurturing, by creating a loving home environment, and providing a high degree of emotional support. Authoritative parenting provides a balance between control and independence. Children are socially responsible, self-assured, and independent. Children are more likely to develop high self-esteem, positive self-concept, greater self-worth, less rebellion, and are more successful in…show more content…
This parenting style is high on warmth and child-to-parent communication. They are very low on discipline, structure, parent-to-child communication, and low on expectation. At times children will act out just to get the necessary attention that they are deprived from at home. Permissive parents take orders and instructions from their children, are passive, endow children with power. There is minimal discipline, and they do not feel responsible for how their children turn out. Ironically, these children turn out to be the unhappiest of all. They are more likely to exhibit psychological problems like anxiety and depression. These children sadly are more likely to commit violence, and engage in antisocial behavior. Research links permissive parents with delinquency, substance abuse, and sexual