Maize belongs to family Poaceae, is among the most important cereal crops of the world; it is used for three main purposes as human food, feed for poultry and livestock. Maize being the highest yielding cereal crop in the world is of significant importance for developing countries, where rapidly increasing population has already out stripped the available food supplies (Shafique et al. 2011). The major producers of maize are USA, China, Brazil, India, Argentina, Indonesia and Ukraine. It is cultivated in the world on 159,531 thousands hectares with 885289 thousand tons production (FAO 2011).
Rice is the primary staple in the diets of over 50% of the globe’s population (Childs, 2012) with over two and a half billion mouths depending on the grain as their primary source of calories (Harriss-White, 2005). Rice is second only to wheat in terms of area harvested and is the most important grain in terms of calorie consumption (Khan & Rashid, 1986). Asia and Africa host the largest rates of consumption worldwide. For centuries developing nations have been dependent on rice’s high caloric value and agricultural versatility. In Northeastern Asia rice consumption has been declining, but numbers continue to grow in the developing regions such as Southeast Asia and Africa (Childs, 2012).
3.84 million Metric tons of sesame seeds was harvested in 2010 (Langham et. al, 2008). The largest contributor of sesame seeds is Burma, and following are India and China. All three of the top contributors provide more than 50% of seeds globally. Japan is the world’s largest importer of sesame seed.
Table 1: 1996: 57m. tonnes, annual increase 3% 4 major producers 45% world production: India, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia Cultivation: Plantations (export); independent growers (domestic/export) Main companies with plantations: Chiquita Brands, Dole Food , Fresh Del Monte Produce PRODUCTION 1996: 79% of total production: Asia (94%); Africa (95%); Central America (45%); South America (70%) In main export countries only 20-25% DOMESTIC MARKET 1996: 11,5m. tonnes / export value $4bn. Major exporters: Latin-America: Ecuador, Costa Rica, Colombia Asia: Philippines ACP: Windward Islands, Ivory Coast, Cameroon Main traders: Dole, Chiquita, Del Monte, Noboa, Fyffes EXPORT A strict system is needed to guarantee the quality of bananas on the market, leading to vertical integration All major companies have their own reefer vessels Main ports USA: Gulport, Wilmington. Philadelphia Europe: Antwerp, Hamburg Livorno, Dover Company owned or national agents Distribution increasingly in direct partnerships with retail chains PACKHOUSES EXPORT HARBOUR TRANSPORT IMPORT HARBOUR RIPENING DISTRIBUTION RETAILCHAINS Major importers 1996: EU15 (30%), USA (30%), Eastern Europe (12%), Japan (8%) CONSUMPTION 2.
Among the 109 spices listed by International Organization for Standardization, India grows about 60 and Indian spices flavor foods in over 130 countries (Nirmal babu et al., 2013) Spices constitute an important group of agricultural commodities and have played a major role in human life and history because of its specific flavours, taste, and aroma, which are virtually indispensable in the culinary art. Several kinds of spices are grown in India since time immemorial, India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices, with a 46 per cent share by volume and 23 per cent share by value, in the world market. India has a worldwide reputation as the only country which produces almost all kinds of spices and it is through these spices exports the country earns the much needed foreign exchange over a long period of time. The Indian spice export basket consists of around 50 spices in whole form and more than 80 products in value added form. India accounts for 25-30 per cent of world’s pepper production, 35 per cent of ginger and about 90 per cent of turmeric production.
Ch#3 Industrial analysis: Pakistan is the 8th major exporter in Asia of textile products. This zone contributes 9.5% to the GDP and to about 15 million people gets employment. Pakistan is the 4th biggest producer of cotton, behind china and India has the third biggest spinning capacity in Asia and it contributes 5% of it to the international spinning capability. Cotton is the essential Cash crop of Pakistan. Textile products are one of the basic human requirements after foods.
Presently soybean contributes 43 % to the total oilseeds and 25% to the total oil production in the country. Currently, India ranks fourth in respect to production of soybean in the world. Production of soybean in India is dominated by Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh which contribute to 89 per cent of the total Soybean production in country India has the fifth largest vegetable oil economy in the world and Madhya Pradesh is considered as Soya bowl of the country. After cereals, oilseeds are the second largest agricultural commodity, accounting for the 14% of the gross cropped area in the country. However, country meets its edible oil demand through imports, which accounts for almost 50% of requirement.
One of the most important crops in the world is Corn. It was originally found in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico centuries ago but has grown since mostly across the United States. Corn is also processed into a wide range of food and industrial products, and it is a staple of the global food supply. Research analysis shows that around 85 million acres of land in the U.S are planted to corn every year if not even larger in an area that is almost the size of California. They are the larger part of the crop grown in the Heartland region.
Pakistan is the 4th largest cotton producers in the world and 2nd largest in Asia with 10.3 million bales. China is at the top of the list with 33 million bales, India is at the 2nd place with 27 million bales. Textile sector contributes approximately 9.5% to the GDP and directly and indirectly provides employment to 15 million people. The total exports Pakistan did in the year 2012-2013 were $ 25.05 billion. Major export commodities of Pakistan were textile (yarn, garments, cotton cloths, bed linen etc), rice, chemicals, sports goods, leather goods, rugs and carpets etc.
In India, linseed is one of the most important industrial oilseed crop and stands next to rapeseed and mustard in terms of area and production. In India it is cultivated in an area of 338 thousand hectares with production and productivity of 147 thousand tons and 434.91 kg/ha, respectively (Anonymous, 2013). The most frequent seed colours in