And the light – independent reaction takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts carbon dioxide molecules [ CO2 ] are needed during this stage of photosynthesis . CO2 is added to a cycle of chemical reactions to build larger molecules , Energy from the light –dependent reactions is used in the reactions . A molecule of a simple sugar is formed . The sugar, usually glucose [ C6H12O6 ] , Stores some of the energy that was captured from sunlight . In the light – independent reactions there is a series of chemical reactions called the Calvin cycle , the Calvin cycle is when the carbon dioxide [ CO6 ] enters the light independent stage of the photosynthesis and the six carbon dioxide [ C06 ] splits into two groups of three carbon dioxide [ 2CO3 ] .
The ETC carries out catabolic reactions that occur in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In the ETC hydrogen’s are removed during oxidation and are combined with the O2 to form water. The energy that is released from this reaction is utilized to attach phosphate groups to ADP, which forms the desired product of ATP. This process is defined as oxidative phosphorylation. Cofactors along the membrane of the mitochondria are the primary tools used for the ETC; these can be referred to as different complexes I-V.
Respiration can be defined as the oxidation of the end products of glycolysis with the storage of the energy in the form of ATP. Cellular respiration occurs when oxygen is available, and the products are carbon dioxide and water. There are three main pathways in the cellular respiration process. These are: pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and the respiratory chain. Pyruvate oxidation in eukaryotic cells occurs inside the mitochondrion in the inner membrane, and in prokaryotes on the inner face of the plasma membrane.
Photosynthesis “is an endergonic suite of reactions that reduce carbon dioxide to glucose or other sugars” (Freeman et al. 2014). Cellular respiration provides plants and many other organisms with energy. Many organic molecules react with oxygen converting it into carbon dioxide, water and energy usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate. The process of oxidizing glucose occurs in two different stages in respiration.
Cells trap energy while metabolizing glucose If glucose is burned in a flame, it readily forms carbon dioxide, water, and a lot of energy----but only if oxygen gas(O2) is present. The balance equation for this combustion reaction is: C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 ---- 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY (HEAT AND LIGHT) This same equation applies to the metabolism of glucose in cells, except that metabolism is a multi-step, controlled series of reactions, ending up with almost half of the energy captured in ATP. Three metabolic processes play roles in the utilization of glucose for energy: GLYCOSIS, CELLULAR RESPIRATION, AND FERMENTATION. A. Glycosis is a series of reactions that begins the metabolism of glucose in all cells and produces the three-carbon product pyruvate. A small amount of the energy stored in the glucose is released in usable form.
Cellular respiration is the chemical process that generates energy by breaking down food molecules when oxygen is present (Prentice Hall). The chemical equation of cellular respiration is 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy, meaning the reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and glucose while the products are carbon dioxide, water, and energy (Gregory). Cellular respiration is crucial to life because it provides all cellular processes with the energy needed in order to function. This process involves glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain (Dr. Fankhauser). Glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol of the cell, is the anaerobic catabolism of glucose that leads to the release of energy and the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid (Gregory).
Photosynthesis creates two energy carrying compounds, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH). ATP and NADPH are the “energy currency” of the cell. Photosynthesis occurs in two main processes, the light reactions, and the dark reactions. The structure of a plant and a leaf is essential to how photosynthesis works. In order for photosynthesis to begin, light from the sun must be converted into energy for the plant to use.
The energy of these energized electrons is now used to split water molecules. Thus leading to oxygen being released from the plant as a bi-product. The light dependant phase, otherwise known as the Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts. In this process NADP.H is fixed with carbon dioxide to make glucose. Sunlight is a necessity for the process of photosynthesis to occur.
Photosynthesis is a very complex system in which light energy is broken down and converted into usable chemical energy for the plant. For example, light energy (usually from the sun), carbon dioxide (usually from the exhale of mammals), and water are used by a plant to make chlorophyll and help the plant grow. In return the plant releases oxygen and produces sugar. This process repeats itself over and over again. Through the process of photosynthesis, a plant leaf is the part of the plant that sucks in the oxygen and carbon dioxide.
(HallyHosting, n.d) The next stage of glycolysis occurs in thecytoplasm of the mitochondria. This is called the link reaction, also known as oxidative carboxylation. Oxygen is required in this stage so is an aerobic respiration and completes the conversion of pyruvate. The 2 pyruvic acid molecules, or also known as pyruvate, enter into the mitochondria, where the hydrogen and carbon dioxide become removed from them creating t... ... middle of paper ... ...oup to be added to ADP. This then forms ATP.