Hydrochloric acid is polar substance and has a linear shape with an electronegativity difference of 0.9; it has weak dipole-dipole forces/bonds between its molecules (intermolecular forces) and polar covalent forces/bonds between the chloride and hydrogen ions (Intramolecular forces). (5) HCl has a molar mass of 36.4609 g.mol-1. HCl is fully miscible in water as it forms hydrogen bonds with the water. Hydrochloric acid has a melting point of 247K and a boiling point of 321K if in a 38% solution. 17
The solvents used in this experiment were sodium hydroxide as the aqueous layer and the ethyl acetate and unknown benzocaine as the organic phase. These phases are separated with an emulsion line which is a distinct line that shows where the aqueous and organic layers meet but do not mix. This method of separation relies on portioning the preferential dissolution of a compound into one solvent over another (2).
Weber C, Erl W, Pietsch A, Weber PC (1995), Aspirin inhibits nuclear factor- κB mobilization and monocyte adhesion in stimulated human endothelial cells. Circulation 91: 1914 – 1917.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn and preform an acid-base extraction technique to separate organic compounds successfully and obtaining amounts of each component in the mixture. In this experiment, the separation will be done by separatory funnel preforming on two liquids that are immiscible from two layers when added together. The individual components of Phensuprin (Acetylsalicylic acid, Acetanilide, and Sucrose as a filler) was separated based upon their solubility and reactivity, and the amount of each component in the mixture was obtained. Also, the purity of each component will be determined by the melting point of the component.
The discovery of captopril as a potent inhibitor of ACE led to the recent development of many series of novel structures with similar biological activity . To date a wide variety of ACE inhibitors from various land and marine food sources have been reported such as milk , cheese , egg white , canola , peanut , rapeseed , antler , fish muscle , seaweeds  and tuna .
Oral acetaminophen is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestines. The serum drug concentration peaks 1-2 hours once after ingestion. Peak plasma level occurs within 4 hours of post ingestion of over dose of an immediate release preparation. Therapeutic levels are 5-20 µg/ml. Acetaminophen primarily metabolized by liver to non toxic, water soluble form that is eliminated in the urine. Overdose leads to formation of hepatotoxic reactive metabolite causes an ensuring cascade of oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. This subsequent inflammatory response propagates hepatocellular injury and death. Similar enzymatic reaction occurs i...
The mixture was fully dissolved into 20.4 mL of ether. Ether was used as the extraction solvent. Ether was an appropriate extraction solvent because it is not reactive and has a low boiling point. The ether was able to dissolve the mixture because ethers are capable of hydrogen and dipole-dipole bonding.6 The formation of these bonds is important for the ether to be able to dissolve the compounds. Once the mixture was dissolved in the ether, acid-base reactions were used to separate both the organic acid and the organic base from the solution. By adding hydrochloric acid to the separatory funnel, the pH in the separatory funnel was changed to an acidic pH. In an acidic pH, the base compound of the mixture will accept the hydrogen ions that are now in the solution. By accepting these ions, the base turns into a water-soluble ionic form. In this
Solution 3 had the lowest Rf value because of the polarity of the solutions. Aspartic acid is a charged amino acid, therefore it would have a stronger polarity, resulting in a lower Rf value. Phenylalanine is a hydrophobic amino acid, which is why we observed a relatively high Rf value. A solution of aspartame and hydrolyzed aspartame had relatively high Rf values. Since about 50% of aspartame is made of phenylalanine , the polarity of aspartame is lightly more nonpolar than polar. In plate II, Solution 7 had the lowest Rf value compared to the other solutions, which means it was the most polar
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen): “Decreased effectiveness of diuretic (Furosemide) because acetaminophen may decrease renal prostaglandin excretion and decrease plasma renin activity”(Woo & Wynne, 2011, p. 891).