Ch 3 Outline: Pg. 61 Once upon a time a Chinese cook combined charcoal with two other common Chinese ingredients. It ended with an explosion of sparks. Even if that story is false, most everyone agrees that fireworks originated from China.
The Atomic Theory began in roughly 400BC with Democritus in Ancient Greece and is universally believed to be correct today. Democritus who was born in 460 BC and died 370 BC and is known as the father of modern science. Democritus proclaimed that everything is made up of atoms. He continued his theory to say that atoms will always be in motion, between atoms there is empty space, atoms are unbreakable, there are an infinite number of atoms all different sizes and shapes. He also said that iron atoms are solid and strong and have hooks to lock them together, water atoms are smooth and slippery, salt atoms have sharp jagged edges because of its taste and air atoms are light and spiralling.
This paper will be meant to discuss the world before and after the discovery of chemistry and how it came about. The main topic of this essay is on the history of chemistry and its impacts on our everyday lives. You may sit there and ask yourself, “What will I ever do with chemistry in my everyday life?” Truthfully from my standpoint I have come to realize that chemistry is a very important part of our everyday lives. The process in you breathing and how the oxygen is converted to carbon dioxide and then how the plants go through photosynthesis and then produce oxygen for us to breathe and live longer. Although some of this may seem simple, most of it truly is simple. You just have to put a little bit of thought into it.
Chemistry has been around for a long time. Chemistry wasn’t a huge subject back in the days because nobody knew what it was. If you asked a caveman if he knew anything about Lewis Structures, he would most likely be confused. Before Chemistry was founded, people were still very interested with elements. In fact some of our time periods are named after elements such as the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Early humans used the metals as tools and weapons for everyday purposes but that’s about it because our technology wasn’t fully prepared. Prior to the knowledge of the many elements on this earth, life was pretty hard on earth with so little, now flash forward to the creation of a whole new generation. Antoine Lavoisier is known as the father of chemistry. In 1787 Antoine Lavoisier wrote a book called Elements of Chemistry. He put together the first complete list of elements, discovered and named oxygen and hydrogen, helped develop the metric system, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. Prior to chemistry, there was alchemy. Alchemy was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations however by doing these experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry. The difference of these two was noticed by Robert Boyle. Alchemy and chemistry are both concerned with matter and its transformations but chemistry uses scientific methods to prove their work. Robert Boyle wrote about this in his book titled The Skeptical Chemist.
Atomic science began many centuries ago with ancient philosophers and alchemists experimenting and probing into the nature and structure of matter. Science began emerging when Thales of Miletus, the Ioian Greek in (634-546 BC) described the power of attraction in electricity long before electricity was known. In (460-370 BC) a Greek philosopher named Demoncritus was called the “father of the atom”. Although he had no experimental evidence to support himself, Demoncritus argued that all matter must consist of a number of fundamental pieces. He called these pieces “atoms” from the Greek word “atomon” which means indivisible. In (79 BC), the Roman poet-philosopher Titus Lucretius developed atomic theory. After the fall of the Roman Empire and
Atomism originated in the school of Leucippus, which was located in Abdera, Thrace, by none other than Leucippus himself. However, the biggest flag bearer for this particular philosophy was Democritus, a student who was taught directly by Leucippus, who worked closely with Leucippus on the theories behind atomism. Democritus took the workings of his teacher and popularizing them, taking the ideas of atomism and put them into the philosophical sphere to be picked over by other great minds such as Plato and his followers,, and many others throughout the ages. The two basic ideas of atomism are the atom, a word which comes from the Greek word “atomos” meaning uncuttable. All atoms are uniform in size and form with no fluctuating properties. The second tenant of atomism is known as the void which, as the name suggests, is the lack of any matter and is the emptiness that atoms interact within. These two ideas are the foundations for atomistic ideas that were then expanded upon with each philosopher adding there own take on how atoms interacted with each other and with macroscopic beings. Through out its existence atomism led to much more than a debate on the composition of the universe. Atomism also led to discussions on how people and the universe interact on a daily basis and how that interaction affected a person’s life by showing the role of the atom in everything from taste of our food to the color of our shirt these were all explained with atoms. Atomism was even woven into debates such as the reality of reality and the legitimacy of knowledge.
Chemistry and technology have made a big difference in the way we live and see things in this time. Decades ago technology was not a major part or even part of chemistry. Technology has made chemistry more efficient and accurate. But it was not always easy to tell how chemistry helped or for what reasons it was used for. Society’s life before technology was involved was much more complicated. Well for us it would be, because of what we have now. But society did not always have the right equipment. For the chemists that there was a long time ago chemistry was very important to them. Chemistry is so fundamental to our world chemistry plays a very important role in everyone’s lives. Back then it was a problem identifying about health, materials, and the energy that we use without the advancements of technology. Society before technology was not able it progress as fast as it does .Medicine was not able to made as it is today, today people are not even needed to produce it. Machines can do it themselves now a day. Chemicals were not that easily identified also they were a little more difficult to be tested. Their results were not as easily described and not always accurate. They had a bigger struggle on how to do things but they worked with what they had. Also when someone came up with a new type of virus or some symptom or something that needed medical attention, was complicated for them to try and figure what it was or if it was the weather change. But thankfully technology has been improved to help us live better and in a safe environment.
In 1803 this theory was finalised and stated that (1) all matter is made up of the smallest possible particles termed atoms, (2) atoms of a given element have unique characteristics and weight, and (3) three types of atoms exist: simple (elements), compound (simple molecules), and complex (complex molecules).
Some of humans’ knowledge comes from the complex theories established in the field of natural sciences. As scientists, we set the bases for an experiment and we let other people set up theories to explore beyond the known. Then, we look at the theories and we choose the one that best describes the concept and tells us the most facts. When I was taking my first year of IB physics, one of the topics was Atomic and Nuclear physics. The topic was mainly about nuclear structure, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions and so on, but there was something in that topic that drew my attention, the model of the Atom. Ever since the fifth century, the understanding of the atom has evolved. The Greeks invented the idea of the atom, and they believed that it wasn’t physically divisible. Then, ...
In year 1803, the young English chemist John Dalton stated atoms as the smallest unit of matter and he was first to propose an atomic model. Even though his atomic model was not accurate, it interested other scientists in his studies. In the end, the combined research and experiments by Democritus, John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr developed the atomic model we know today, a positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbitals with scattered electrons. This significant discovery led to the development many new areas of knowledge. One of the most important areas was the introduction to nuclear medicine.