They feel that students should select material that has meaning to them and that they will enjoy. Teachers who use the top down model encourage their students to engage in activities where they are able to speak, write and read to develop the skills they need in order to read. This method implies that a teacher believes the students will be able to read the words on the page by using context clues to help figure out words he or she may not be familiar with.
In order to have successful writing in your classroom, teachers need to model writing for their students (Behymer, 2003). Interactive writing is a great tool for modeling writing. When interactive writing occurs the children are supported during this process and are able to write things that they normally could not write on their own (Behymer, 2003). “Interactive writing provides powerful demonstrations that help young children make progress in their own writing” (McCarrier, Pinnell, &
Level of the students: Intermediate Lesson Type: Speaking skill integrating reading, and writing Aims: • To provide students with practice in editing and revising • To provide practice in scan reading skills • To provide practice in expressing opinion • To provide practice in intensive reading skills • To integrate reading into speaking and writing skills Time: Approximately 70 minutes Assumptions: Students should • Know how to effectively analyze and point out features of text ( paragraphs, tense, grammar) • Know how to write an essay ( Introduction, body, and conclusion) • Know how to give effective feedback • Know how to organize and write an argumentative paper Anticipation problems and solutions: • Student might have problems with write a conclusion for an argument paper. The teacher might want to go over the key components of a conclusion. • Student might have difficulty with creating an effective “resounding thought” for an argument paper. The teacher might want to explain what a “resounding thought” is and how to use it effectively. • Students might struggle with transitions and adding their own ideas to the paper.
As part of the writing lesson I will be explaining the approaches used, why I chose these particular ones and the teaching context. According to (Benesch, 1996; Johns & Price-Machado, 2001; Spack, 1997b) cited in Ferris and Hedgcock (2005:73) “particular expertise is required to teach writing to non-native speakers of English, therefore we need a systematic way of inquiring into the diverse background features, skills, schemata, and expectations of ESL writers so we can take this information into account when planning instruction”. After having collected the profile of the students it is important to set the goals and objectives of the lesson. Graves (2000:79) cited in Ferris and Hedgcock (2005:87) claimed that “clear goals help to make teaching purposeful because what you do in class is related to your ... ... middle of paper ... ...The teacher at the end taught writing applying both product and process approaches.
This is useful, and helpful when teaching kids. It allows for repetition and practice of reading and writing. However, in some cases especially students who are below average in their reading skills some strategies need to be provided and mastered before comprehension can occur. Students need to have prior background knowledge about phonics, and word usage. The whole idea is to build both top-down model strategies, and bottom-up skills and word identification at the same time.
There are many forms of assessment but writing is the primary basis upon which a child’s work will be judged and Jennings, Caldwell and Lerner (2010) made emphasis that teachers should focus on writing because reading and writing are intertwined and is used to construct meaning (pg. 338). It becomes important for teachers to teach writing because it is a form of expression of self. We learned in earlier chapters that readers construct meaning as they read likewise Jennings, Caldwell and Lerner (2010) informed that writers construct meaning as they create text (pg. 338).
The language arts curriculum should be centered on text and subjects that encourage students to think and make informed decisions. Ultimately, the curriculum should be used to help students understand themselves and to see the possibilities in the world around them. If the teacher is indeed an artist and the student his or her work of art, the curriculum is the tool that enables the production of a masterpiece. References National Council of Teachers of English. (2003).
Effective teachers will make decisions on how they teach writing based on students needs. The effective teaching and learning of writing through the linking of theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, and sociolinguistics to classroom practice will be discussed, along with a balanced approach, and the importance of writing itself. The theory of behaviourism is teacher-centred and delves into the teaching and learning of writing through skills-based development. Skinner (as cited in Ertmer & Newby, 2013) states it is a theory based on learning that changes based on consequences and observable behaviour, and instruction is based around presentation and practise of desired targets. Relating to this theory, a model for literacy development is called the skills-based model.
The students probably also need writing in their working environment, so it becomes important to teach them how to use the targeted features in written communication. Therefore, to keep it balance, writing is given as homework and to make it relevant to the objective, the students will be asked to write a short email, which is one example of the way people write to communicate in the real life. The lesson is designed to give implicit exposure of grammatical features to the students. In some sections of the lesson (e.g. warming up activity and transi... ... middle of paper ... ...mmar: An empirical study.
Fluency helps in reading because the reader should be able to tell what a word is and know what it means. If a student rereads a story they can practice fluency and become better at it. A teacher can also be the guidance and model when developing a fluent reader. If the teacher does the demonstrating, a student could follow along and eventually learn to become fluent. Fluency can be developed in reading once a student has caught on to phonics, phonemic awareness, oral language, vocabulary, and comprehension.