Chapter Four Summary

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Chapter Four gives a developmental perspective of addiction. There are multiple developmental theories that are used to understand the stages of life and how addiction is perceived in each stage. To begin, three developmental perspectives are discussed. Piaget’s developmental theory focused on cognition due to his biology training. This theory involved four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Ford and Lerner’s contribution to developmental theory was a systemic element. It focused on individual identities being influenced by interactions with other people. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory suggested that individual personalities were developed in stages. Freud’s five psychoanalytic stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. The rest of the chapter focuses on Erikson’s theory of the Stages of Psychosocial Development. This theory has eight stages that cover the entire lifespan. It also includes both social and biological components. In each stage there is an age appropriate task or goal that needs to be overcome. Although stages 1-3 are not covered in the chapter, Dr. Shumway explained them in class. Stage one is Trust vs. Mistrust. Stage two is Autonomy vs. Doubt and Shame. Stage three is Initiative vs. Guilt. Stage four is Industry vs. Inferiority. This stage ranges from age six to twelve. The task is to develop a sense of competence and mastery of new skills, which is often developed when children begin school. If children are successful, they develop a sense of industry. However, if they are not up to par, a sense of inferiority develops. This stage is when risk factors of substance abuse become evident. Stage five is Identity vs. Role Confusion. This stage involves adoles... ... middle of paper ... ... be helpful. If all eight of Erikson’s stages were condensed into a table the reader would be able to more easily understand the stages and how they connect to one another. The way it is now the information is spread out through an entire chapter and may be difficult for the reader to grasp the concept of how the stages are linked together. A table with each stage, what age it occurs, what the task is, how the task is fulfilled, and how it relates to addiction would greatly improve author’s general ability to convey the information in a way that makes sense to the reader. Overall, most of the statistics and information used by the author were undoubtedly beneficial to understanding the chapter. They often contributed to the message that the author was attempting to convey. However, on occasion, the statistics and information was irrelevant or lacking purpose.
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