White tailed deer populations continue to rise. The lack of land is causing unhealthy living environment for the white tailed deer. Deer overpopulation needs to be controlled. The three main types of deer control are hunting, predator control, and non-aggressive control methods. The most popular form of deer control is hunting.
Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) The controversial topic I decided to choose was Michigan’s plans on preventing the spread of CWD (Chronic Wasting Disease) in the white-tailed deer and elk herds. Many areas throughout the United States have broken out with this deadly disease, like Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Montana, and even the province of Saskatchewan. The problem with CWD originated from Saskatchewan, where captive deer became infected with this disease that affects the nervous system. This disease is very similar to that of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or more commonly referred to as “Mad Cow Disease”. The disease was spread through international transportation of deer from one farm to the next.
When nonnative species begin to take over a new habitat and displace native species, they are then termed an invasive species. Nonnative invasive species are one of the biggest threats to ecosystems in North America (Cox, 1999) because they are able to have an impact on many levels, including ecosystems, communities, and populations (Cushman, Tierney, & Hinds, 2004). Feral swine are considered to be in the top 100 problematic invasive species. Sus scrofa are native to Eurasia and North Africa, but are currently found on all continents except Antarctica (Timmons et al, 2012). Swine arrived in North America in 1493.
Introduction Predator-prey relationships are complex interactions involving many factors that may influence the stability of each population of species. Avian insectivores and their relationship with the different species of insects they consume is one of these relationships that has become of interest in recent years. Widespread outbreaks of the Southern Pine Beetles in the Southeast, Emerald Ash Borers in the upper Midwest, and Bark Beetles in the Pacific Northwest are killing various tree species in forests including pines and ash. Although some of these insect outbreaks may be able to be controlled with pesticides, introducing such pesticides in long-standing forests could potentially be detrimental to the health of forest and thus their use is not a preferred method of control. As a result, researchers are searching for a biological control agent capable of containing the spread of such pests.
Description of the topic The National Wildlife Federation lists an endangered animals as a genus that may be eradicated by leaving an insufficient quantity to reproduce or obliterating the species in it entirety ("Endangered animals act," para 1). In the United States alone there are 70 mammals that are recorded as endangered; however the foreign number exceeds 250 (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014). The extinction process could be correlated to a natural route; however extinction may also transpire due to environmental differences. Climate variations producing even slight changes in characteristics may have an extreme consequence on an endangered species. Loss of habitation also impacts species causing them to becoming imperiled.
Typical... ... middle of paper ... ...f of a tree, it can kill it. Deer typically feed on plants that they like, but if the plants that they like are gone, they will eat the ones that they do not prefer (Natural History Living). Deer are most active during dusk when they get up to go find food (Damage Prevention and Reduction). Deer usually find food to be really scarce during winter because the snow or the cold kills the plants (Your Role in Deer Management). This is how the history of deer has to deal with population and the Lacy Act.
Chronic Wasting Disease is transmitted through contact with infected animals; however, it is believed that carcasses from infected individuals, along with saliva, blood, feces, and urine left in the environment, ... ... middle of paper ... ...ricultural and forestry production can be protected from destruction by overbrowsing by white-tailed deer. Landowners can also benefit from leasing land to hunters, thus receiving funds for use and overbrowsing protection. Areas where populations are under control deer-vehicle collisions would be less likely than in the areas of overpopulation. The costs for population control include sporting licensure fees, population monitoring, and other studies. With the willingness to pay from hunters, the licensure fees should cover a significant portion of the monetary budget needed to support wildlife management.
Chronic Wasting Disease has spread throughout the nations deer population (Yates 1) Researchers at the University of Illinois found that killing infected deer helps control the spread chronic Wasting Disease (1). Hunting does not only benefit animals being hunted, but it also benefits animals that are not the target of hunting (Guiden 1). One way Hunting does this is by the managing the number of predators (“25 reasons” 1). Through these methods hunting protects wildlife for the future
Major Causes of Extinction Hotspots are areas that have rich diversity of species, but many species have become critically endangered because of devastating human activities. The loss of biodiversity in many hotspots was mainly because of habitat loss and fragmentation which in turn have occurred due to pollution, overexploitation of resources, deforestation, increased human population, and introduction of exotic species (Background paper on Himalayan ecology, 2010). For Himalaya, deforestation is one of the main causes of extinction. People living in Himalaya convert the forest into an agricultural land and overuse the timber, fodder, and fuel wood (WWF, 2011a). Moreover, the production of charcoal and over-grazing is considered to be causes of extinction in Himalaya (WWF, 2011a).Many Himalayans depend on farm animals for their living but do not have enough food for them; as a result, large numbers of grazers are found in the forests destroying the future of the forest (WWF, 2011a).
Accepting the doctrine of Animal Rights can result in the extinction of native animals, and also cause adverse effects on the environment. Another consequence of accepting the doctrine of Animal Rights is that humans will no longer be able to control foreign predators (pests) via traps, hunting, fishing and poisons. Many foreign animals have been introduced to different ecosystems over the course of history, and is very likely to have caused many extinctions of indigenous species. This occurs because they compete with native animals for habitat and food, and sometimes introduce new diseases. Maintaining the indigenous species and thus biodiversity is important because animals depend on each other in a food web, and an extinction in one can result in many more following.