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Cerebellar Lesions

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Cerebellar Lesions

Introduction: The Cerebellum

The Cerebellum, accounting for approximately 25 percent of

the brain, sits above the brainstem and communicates with nearly

all areas of the neuroaxis. It is implicated in sensory, motor,

cognitive, emotional and speech processing, display

neuroplasticity, learning, and memory. (Joseph, 2000.) The

cerebellum is made up of several structures, and differing

regions have different functions with a primary motor component,

including visual processing, speech, and the visual guidance of

movement (Joseph, 2000). Its main function continues to be

“stabilizing the body and providing information about the

position and movement of the head in relation to gravity”

(Joseph), as well as coordination of axial and appendicular

(trunk and limb) muscles, which takes place in the anterior

lobes. The neocerebellum (the dentate gyrus and cerebellar

hemispheres) evolved to coordinate upper/lower limb movements

and gait. It is the neocerebellum that controls multiple joint

and voluntary movements, and is indicative of fine motor skills

and the resulting learned, then automatic, behavior.

Appearing homogenous, the cerebellum is made up of a

three layered cortex “which overlays and communicates with three

pairs of deep cerebellar nuclei: the dentate, fastigious, and

interpositus” (Joseph). It is further structurally and

functionally divided up into the anterior lobes, posterior

lobes, and flocculonodular lobes. The cerebellar body is divided

into the archicerebellum (including the flocculonodular lobe),

the paleocerebellum (aneterior lobe) and, lastly, the

neocerebellum, so influential in motor, somatic, and cognitive

activity. T...

... middle of paper ...

... They also experienced dysfunction in visuospatial

short term memory.

References

Fabbro, F; Tavano, A; Corti, S; Bresolin, N; De-Fabritiis, P;

Borgatti, R, (2004). The Long-term neuropsychological deficits

after cerebellar infarctions in two young adult twins. Journal

of Neuropsychologia.2004; Vol. 42 (4): 536-545.

Information on Cerebellar disorders. Retrieved April 2005.

Available at

http://www.disabledworld.com/artman/publish/glossary.shtml.

Information on the causes of cerebellar disorders. Retrieved

April 2005. Available at http://www.merck.com/mmhe.html

The Treasure at the Bottom of the Brain. Retrieved April 2005.

Available at http:// www.newhorizons.org/neuro/leiner.htm

Carlson’s Movement: The cerebellum. Information on cerebellar

dysfunctions. Retrieved April 2005. Available at

http://nawrot.psych.ndsu./cerebellumhtml.
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