Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1989.
Examining Hawthorne’s writings in the works of The Scarlet Letter, "The Minister's Black Veil," and "Young Goodman Brown" exemplifies American Romanticism at its best. Hawthorne used extensive study and his own innate knowledge from his own family history to examine the New England Puritan to give the reader an accurate picture of seventeenth century life. In the introduction to The Scarlet Letter Hawthorne describes his ancestor as "a soldier, legislator, judge; he was a ruler in the Church; he had all the Puritanical traits, both good and evil. He was likewise a bitter persecutor·" (Scarlet Letter 89). The women waiting for Hester to emerge from prison pronounce the sentence of the "A" not harsh enough.
252-6. http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/nhpoe2.html Wagenknecht, Edward. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1989.
The Complete Short Stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc.,1959. 247-56. James, Henry. Hawthorne.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Complete Short Stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc.,1959. James, Henry. Hawthorne.
New York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1965. Wagenknecht, Edward. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1989.
Hawthorne's use of symbolism in his allegorical tale Young Goodman Brown causes the main character's revelations about the sin within his community, his family and himself. Young Goodman Brown's journey into the forest is best defined as a kind of "general, indeterminate allegory, representing man's irrational drive to leave faith, home, and security temporarily behind, for whatever reason, and take a chance with one(more) errand onto the wilder shores of experience" (Martin). Brown has a curiosity that "kills" his naive outlook on life and changes him until his death. He has a mission to go into the forest and meet the devil. A mission that he begins out of curiosity and a "deep need to see if the teachings of his childhood, his religion, and his culture, have armed him sufficiently to look the devil in the face and return unscathed" (Hodara 1).