The bubble forced banks to give out homes loans with unreasonably high risk rates. The response of the banks caused a decline in the amount of houses purchased and “a crisis involving mortgage loans and the financial securities built on them” (McConnell, 2012 p.479). The effect on the economy was catastrophic and caused a “pandemic” of foreclosures that effected tens of thousands home owners across the U.S. (Scaliger, 2013). The debt burden eventually became unsustainable and the U.S. crisis deepened as the long-term effect on bank loans would affect not only the housing market, but also the job market. What at first seemed to be an economic slump turned into a brutal crisis, and all eyes looked to the Government and Federal Reserve to help the economy.
By 2008, due to the failures of large financial institutions, there were severe liquidity problems within the US banking system. When the housing bubble peaked in late 2007 the values of securities linked to U.S. real estate pricing began to plummet (Stiglitz 55). This was a critical hit to financial institutions across the globe. Questions began to arise amongst consumers and members of government alike in regards to the solvency of banks due to poorly performing loans and mortgages, which in turn led to declines in the availability of credit. The complete loss of investor confidence impacted stock markets globally.
Even today, strong debates continue over major issues caused by the Great Recession in part over the accommodative federal monetary and fiscal policy (Economic Policy Institute, 2013). The Great Recession of 2007 – 2009 enlarges the longest financial crisis since the Great Depression of 1929 – 1932 that damaged the economy. The causes of the Great Recession all started as hundreds of billions of dollars was given to the United States abroad and financiers conceiving were to make a profit and what better way but the real estate market. Since the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 and an expansion made in 1995 the than President Bush endorsed the program that created Option adjustable rate mortgages (nick-named “Pick-A-Pay”) to allow for bank to sell these options even though they were high risk (Conservapedia, 2013). The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977/95 is defined as to framework financial institutions, state and local governments, and community organizations to jointly promote banking services in the community” (Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, n.d.).
Furthermore, it became a worldwide phenomenon; “the way the debt was sold on to investors gave the crisis global significance. The US banking sector package sub-prime home loans into mortgage-backed securities known as CDOs (collateralised debt obligations). These were sold on to hedge funds and investment banks who decided they were a great way to generate high returns (and big bonuses for the oh-so-clever bankers that bought them). When borrowers started to default on their loans, the value of these investments plummeted resulting in huge losses for banks globally”, (timesonline.co.uk). As this was going on, consumers felt the effect of basic necessities prices increasing.
Housing inflation were inversely related to both foreclosure and delinquency rates. The rates dropped drastically over the years which led to increased house prices that almost collapsed the mortgage programs. As a result of the crisis in subprime mortgages, the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) program was introduced in the beginning of October 2008 by the United State government that enabled the purchase of equity and as... ... middle of paper ... ...s that had surpluses back to the country. Works Cited Kaminsky, G., & Reinhart, C. (1999). The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance of Payment Problems, American Economic Review, 89, (3), 473–500.
Investment banks were left with hundreds of billions of dollars in loans due to the fact the market for CDOs collapsed. Two major investment banks such as Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns were out of business in 2008. As a result, American spending declined, foreclosures dramatically increased, and substantial decreased in personal wealth. Many financial organizations conducts unethical business practices because they failed to respect human dignity, in the sense that such behavior hinder the moral privileges of other human beings.
When subprime mortgages began to flourish, the term housing bubble came into existence. The term relates to the time in which houses sharply increased in value, and consumers often borrowed at less than the lowest rates. People believed that the price of their homes would rise and they could then refinance for lower payments. The problem with that mentality is many people didn’t just refinance for lower payments, they also refinanced for personal spending. Inflation of home prices meant homeowners suddenly had more equity and were able to spend the money as they chose.
The financial crisis of 2008, which has also been referred to as The Great Recession and the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, began with the downfall in the housing market in the United States. Thee were many factors that played into this housing market turn for the worst during this time. Some of these factors included: subprime loans, the housing bubble that peaked in 2005-2006, government policy and regulation, and faulty mortgages. This housing market turn affected more than just the housing market with all the personal and government additions involved. In turn the unemployment rate went down with this event, evictions and foreclosures of houses sky rocketed, faulty and risky loans were also issued that created problems in the banking system.
Sachit Grover The Decision That Drove the Economy Forward The downward spiral of the United States economy began in 2007. Initially, banks made careless loans to individuals. Following these careless loans, many couldn’t afford to stay in their homes. The credit crisis was occurring simultaneously with the housing market collapse. The credit crisis occurred when large financial institutions were on the verge of collapsing due to the risky loans issued to United States residents.
In 1929 the stock market crashed, triggering the worst depression ever in U.S. history, which lasted for about a decade. During the 1920s, the unequal distribution of wealth and the stock market speculation combined to create an unstable economy by the end of the decade. The unequal distribution of the wealth had several outlets. Money was distributed between industry and agriculture within the U.S.; in social classes, between the rich and middle class; and lastly in world markets, between America and Europe. Due to the imbalance of the wealth, the economy became very unstable.