on older plants the leaflet infection is mostly on older leaves and may cause serious defoliation. The most striking symptoms are on the green fruit. Small, water-soaked spots first appear which later become raised and enlarge until they are one-eighth to one-fourth inch in diameter. Centers of these lesions become light brown and slightly sunken with a rough, scabby surface. Ripe fruits are not susceptible to the disease.. but the surface of the seed becomes contaminated with the bacteria The organism may also alternate hosts over winter, by getting on volunteer tomato plants and on infected plant debris.
The disease attacks the foliage and crown of the plant, but the rhizomes and stolons remain uninfected (Krause, 2005). Cultural control of dollar spot Cultural control of dollar spot has major success if completed properly. A couple cultural practices that promote healthy turf are: removing excess thatch, mow frequently at recommended heights, and aerate compacted soils (SLJ, 2009). Removing excess thatch can be accomplished a couple of ways such as; by using a vertical mower or by using a power rake. Aerating the turf will help with soil compaction while topdressing will help with drainage (Wong 2009).
Make Lawns Great Again The problem with lawn care is simple, talking about water, mowers, gas, and fertilizers. Grass can be overwatered and over fertilized but when fertilized right and watered right can show amazing results. When it comes to grass soil has a big part of its growth if the soil is not collecting the right amount of nutrients in the grass will not grow. Soil isn’t the only problem with grass. Many people think that overwatering is okay but the process of overwatering a lawn can lead to the distribution of roots causing the lawn to be spaced out and spottier.
Raise the level of your mowing blade. Unless you are running a golf course in your yard, there is no reason to have your lawn extremely short. One fact that many people do not know is that when you cut your lawn extremely short, you are forcing the grass to grow faster. The green grass blades are the source of the food the grass takes in and stores from the sun. Pro lawn care specialists know that if you leave the grass longer, it will grow more slowly.
The flowers of this plant can range from purple to yellow and can reach lengths of up to 30 centimeters. It has a very unique root system that penetrates deep into the ground allowing it to survive harsh dry conditions and seeds are normally dispersed through water and wind but can also be dispersed by attaching to things like vehicles, clothing and fur. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) This perennial grass is not a threatened species and can be seen all over the southern Africa. It is an excellent invader and is mostly used as a food source for livestock or grazing animals. Generally the seeds are wind pollinated but through the grazing of animals such as the impala, the white rhino and other herbivorous animals, it is rapidly dispersed and can easy establish a new area.
QSMAS focus on smallholder farmers minimizing land degradation while simultaneously providing an easily adoptable method to the current slash and burn practices. Slash and mulch can reduce deforestation, reduce soil erosion, provide nutrients. Economically, it is easy to implement with less labour and produce additional products such as fruits and fuelwood. This system has had almost doubled yields, increased field lifetime and created more durable soil and crops to withstand natural hazards of drought, hurricanes and landslides (Holt-Gimenez,
This method is generally cheaper and less damaging to the environment than using chemical pesticides. Crop Diseases Fungal parasites may be useful in biocontrol, but they can also have enormous negative consequences for crop production. Some fungi are parasites of plants. Most of our common crop plants are susceptible to fungal attack of one kind or another. Spore production and dispersal is enormously efficient in fungi and plants of the same species crowded together in fields are ripe for attack.
They are drought resistant once established, and although they thrive in summer sun they also tolerate isolated periods of cold weather or an occasional frost. Young trees may need selective pruning to develop a strong central trunk. Jacarandas show better color when amended with organic mulch, but keep mulch away from the trunk to prevent rotting. Jacarandas are most often planted in rows as street trees, where the crowns grow together to create colorful canopies, or in parks or large open areas where they have plenty of room to spread. The fallen blossoms are slightly sticky and sometimes considered a nuisance, especially when they drop on parked cars below.
The growth of dwarf peas, Pisum sativum depends on the characteristics of the soil and the seeds. Sterile conditions will have a positive effect on P. sativum below and above ground physiology. The plants’ root length, root width and number of leaves will be positively affected by sterile conditions because the pathogens in soil which out compete the plants for its nutrients will be killed off. Soil and some seeds were sterilized and grown for twenty one days before root length, root width, and number of leaf parameters was tested. From the three parameters, root length was the only one affected by sterile conditions.
Even the most minor changes in acidity can drastically change how it grows. There are plants that are adapted for this and ones that are not. Some household cleaners can also be toxic to the plants, while they are used in fertilizers. The soil is extremely fine tuned and super specific to different types of plants. One small change can determine if the plant will grow, or ultimately not.