Mary Tudor's reign on England was unsuccessful because her goal of returning England to the Roman Catholic church was never completely fulfilled. Mary Tudor's decisions as queen were mostly driven by anger and the want to get revenge. Although Mary Tudor could be very kind and giving to her people at times a fact that is remembered by many is how Queen Mary allowed many brutal executions of people in England to be performed just because of their choice of religion. That can curb people's opinions of her very fast.
Catherine the Great was an empress of Russia who ruled from 1762 to 1796, the longest reign of any female Russian leader. Although her reign is clouded in rumors and legends she was still able to greatly expand her country's empire. Catherine the Greats story begins like most others, born of two parents, her Father Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and her Mother Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. But don’t let that fool you. Her story consists of many twists and turns that sets her apart from others, with the outcome of greatness. Catherine the Great also known as Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst was born May 2, 1729, in Szczecin, Poland. Not much is said on her education but it is believed that she acquired formal education. The year is 1744, and a 15-year-old Sophie was just invited to Russia by Elizabeth who had assumed the throne three years earlier. Elizabeth eventually choosing her nephew Peter as heir was now looking for a bride. Their marriage took place on August 21, 1745. Catherine and Peter had a rocky marriage from the start so when eight long years passed without...
Catherine of Aragon was born on December 16th, 1485 and died on January 7th, 1536. Catherine was the first born daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Both of her parents later on funded Christopher Columbus’s long voyages to the New World in 1492. At a very, very young age of just 3 years old; Catherine was to be betrothed to Prince Arthur and married him when she turned 16, in the year 1501. Sadly, her husband died 5 months later and she acquired a very important title in her young life; the title of being the very First Woman to be an Ambassador of the Spanish Court in England. Soon after being the ambassador, Catherine was to be married to Arthur’s youngest brother, Henry VIII. Her title then went from being an ambassador, to a Princess, and finally to the highest title; a Queen. Catherine ruled England from 1509-1533 by the side of Henry. Catherine was painfully unaware of the fact that Henry was having an affair with his mistress; and soon to be wife, Anne Boleyn. The reason being for his infidelity was due to the fact that Catherine hadn’t p...
Naming yourself a great leader isn't the same as establishing the respect of a great leader from the people you rule, for example, Queen Nzinga was able to rule sufficiently and protect her kingdom from, slavery, constant wars, famine, and bankruptcy, whereas Louis XIV, although creating a new society failed at providing such fortifications. In 1663, when Louis XIII had passed away, five year old Louis XIV had to take up the throne, and although he made immature and unreasonable decisions, he later made his mind up to make a more centralized state. For this reason there were constant wars with foreign countries and domestic civil strife. Louis XIV’s most acknowledged decision was the employing of John Baptiste Colbert as Minister of Finance, under whom the French economy flourished, hence creating a centralized and fortified state for the first half of his reign. However, later in his reign, due to extravagant wars, and continuous financial problems, Louis XIV’s new society collapsed. Similarly, Queen Nzinga took over the throne after the death of her brother in 1623, fought many battles and wars, however, was able to keep up a strong centralized and government, and was able to protect her people from the Portuguese for as long as she lived.
Over the period of 67 years, Catherine the Great- a former Empress of Russia in the 1700’s- used various methods in order to implement foreign policy unto her nation and the nations around her. Her accomplishments in foreign policy not only caused drastic changes in her own country for her own people, but also in surrounding countries and their people. The most impressive and life-altering achievement of Catherine the Great was the way in which she intelligently and manipulatively went about her way in seizing control over one-third of Poland.
Louis the Great, as some called him, was a firm believer of absolutism since he himself saw the effects it had on countries if done correctly. In his opinion sharing power would lead to corruption. According to him, “ The more power or rights you grant to the assemblies of people, the more they want… Instead, the needs and interest of the state must come first” (Document 5). In other words, Louis is saying that if one grants power to their people then they will grow greedy and would only act to benefit themselves. The best way to prevent such a thing would be to have one person hold all the power therefore preventing corruption. Likewise having this ruler with all the power would ensure that he would only act in ways that would benefit his kingdom and his people. Another very influential person from this time period was also one of the best orator and his name was Jacques Benigne Bossuet. Jacques was an apologist towards absolute monarchy. In his eyes the king’s power must not be inescapable if one wishes to retain a powerful and prosperous nation. In one of his books he
Deeply influenced by her time’s stereotypes of women, some of which she shared, Elizabeth I worked hard to avoid the mistakes of her female predecessors. Perceiving herself as a king at heart (Doc.12), Elizabeth distanced herself from what were thought to be the innate traits of women. Responding to the commonly held beliefs that women were dangerous and inequitable as rulers, yet weak and subservient by nature, Elizabeth strove to be a fair and loyal leader, played up her feminine traits for political gain, and refused to tolerate any form of dissent.
In 1981, Isabel de Madariaga wrote the landmark book, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great. This book was the first comprehensive study of Catherine the Great’s reign. It was a very long, thoroughly researched, very dense book about later eighteenth-century in Russia and was meant for scholars. The book I read and am reviewing, Catherine the Great: a Short History, also by de Madariaga, is more than a shortened version of her earlier work; it is a manageable, factual examination of only about 200 pages with maps, illustrations and timelines, and genealogical tables.
"To promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion, or empire above any realm, nation or city is repugnant to nature, contumely to God, a thing most contarious to his revealed will and approved ordinance, and finally it is the subversion of good order, of all equality and justice."
If one was to discern Maria Theresa’ character from reading her Political Testament, one would say that she was a practical, clever, and devote Catholic woman who despite the lack of resources or empire’s affair knowledge of the empire, managed to restore the empire. One aspect in her political Testament that made her look practical was when she recognized her ignorance of the situation of the empire by admitting to be “devoid of the experience and knowledge needful to rule dominions so extensive” (Theresa, 2). She was aware of not being informed of the empire’s situation and, as a result, she depended on her advisers to solve the empire’s dilemmas. On the other hand, she was a devote Catholic but not to the point of unconditionally supporting the church in financial matters. In her testament, she noticed the monetary indulgency that the church enjoyed due to her predecessor’s generosity, but she considered that times were different and the church did not need as much economic support as before because they had already achieve the goal of converting most people in the empire to Catholicism (Theresa, 7). It would be safe to say that she was in tune with the ideas of the enlightenment because her decisions were based partly on reason and not tradition. The mere fact of her assuming the crown instead of her husband Duke Francis Stephan of Lorraine shows that she did not follow the tradition. (Johnson, 113).
Gender was the leading cause of distress in the 1500’s: King Henry VIII wanted nothing more than to have a son, yet was “cursed” with the legacy of a frail son, whom died before the age of 18 and two daughters, one of whom broke every convention of her gender. Queen Elizabeth I never married nor had children, yet can be considered one of England’s most successful monarchs. By choosing King James VI of Scotland as her heir, unbeknownst to her, she created the line that leads to the modern Queen of England, Elizabeth II. The question posed is then, how did Elizabeth I’s gender affect her rule?
Brian May and Roger Taylor, in 1970, set the wheels in motion for Queen when they decided to form a band during their college years. Queen started out as a band called Smile who signed with Mercury Records, and included: Tim Staffell, Brian May, and Roger Taylor. Once Tim Staffell left, the group added Freddie Mercury (lead singer) and bassist John Deacon. Freddie Mercury, Farrokh Bulsara, was a fan of Smile and was added on as the lead vocalist. John Deacon began as a young guitarist who was a member of the group called The Opposition. This band was composed of a group of friends, and they were influenced by groups such as The Hollies and Herman’s Hermits. Eventually, Deacon was added to the group that already included Mercury, Taylor, and May. Over time, the group changed their name to Queen. The name Queen was selected by Mercury, and this name is symbolic of power and regality. The addition of Mercury proved to be an essential aspect to the history of Queen’s success. In Queen: The Early Years, Hodkinson writes, “much of what made Freddie also defined Queen: without him they were merely a model rock band with a bent for a commercial tune” (2). The group became well known for their theatrical performances and costumes that were often over the top. “From their international breakthrough in 1976, Queen continually remained one of the best-selling rock acts worldwide beyond Mercury's death in 1991. Their total record sales are estimated at up to 300 million records” (Desler 391). This group was important to the evolution of music and music performance in bands that were to follow them.
Through the use of two main characters in the film, Queen Margot, a critical examination will be made to further understand the importance of developing characters and their respected standard historical interpretations. By heavily characterizing the protagonist, Margaret of Valois, audience members were given the ability to identify with her. Similarly, the Queen regent, Catherine de Medici remained heavily mythologized in the film to advance the plotline. The overall success of the film can thereby be attributed to the prominence of the representation of historical figures.