One part (that is above the surface) represents our conscious mind; the other part (that is under the surface) represents our unconscious mind. The unconscious mind should not be confused with "being unconscious" and unconsciousness which is loss of consciousness. He claimed that unconscious mind affects the largest part of our thoughts and behavior and that all our emotions and actions have causes in our unconscious mind. Although many people don’t agree with Freud, his idea that people react for a reason is accepted. (The Psychopathology of Everyday life – 1901).
Psychoanalytic psychologists believe that typical causes of mental disorders root from unresolved conflicts and trauma. Psychoanalytic treatment is based on the idea that people are motivated by unrecognized wishes and desires. Treatment involves bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness so that the patient can learn to deal with it. There are many different ways in which the psychologist can bring the patient's conflict to consciousness including, rorschach ink blots, Freudian slip, and free
Compare and contrast the assumptions of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Explain why these approaches made the assumptions they did, and critically evaluate each approach. Behaviorism and psychoanalysis are two influential theories of psychology that are pole apart. The most basic difference between these two theories is in the way they define a behavior. While behaviorists believe that that almost every human emotion is conditioned by habit and can be learned or unlearned, psychoanalysts believe that everything humans do is completely controlled by the unconscious mind at some level.
There is no growth or resolution by any of the characters. Things rearrange in the character's lives but nothing changes. No one is complete or happy. No one has made any substantial gain. There is no satisfaction for the reader.
Teens may feel pressured by their friends to try drugs, they may have easy access to drugs, they may use drugs to rebel against their family or society, or they may take an illegal drug because they are curious about it or the pleasure that it gives them. After interviewing my teenage cousin whom has been in several altercations at home and school, enlightened me on the ways that teenagers in her age group gets involved in drug use. Kids start as young as ten years of age using, selling, and experimenting with drugs. My teenage cousin was expelled from public schools when she started experimenting with drugs. She was surrounded by many challenges when she enrolled in the alternative behavioral school.
The ego, which can be seen as the mediator between the id and the super-ego, takes into account the activities of the external world, and attempts to invoke some balance among all three parts of the mind, with failure resulting in neurosis of some kind. Freud’s “Lecture III” provides, what I believe to be another important theory in understanding personality from this perspective, stemming from his notion of parapraxes, or unintentional acts that are actually unconsciously intentional. Such is the case with the familiar “Freudian slip”, where something is said which is actually a distortion or paradox of what is actually meant. This goes along with what are called symbolic acts, which are actions we take that, although we insist they have no meaning, or were accidental in nature, are actually intentional. For example, the act of forgetting is, according to Freud, a kind of intentional defense mechanism, that we unconsciously use to repress memories, or put things out of our minds.
He introduces his “Unconscious Mind” theory, which is better known as Id, Ego and Superego. This theory explains that people’s unconscious desires take control over their actions. The Id is the instinctive component of personality, it responds directly and immediately to instincts. The Ego is the realistic principle; it is concerned about devising a realistic way to obtain pleasure. The Superego helps control Id’s impulses and consists of the conscience and the ideal self.
Behavioral is a directive approach based on the main beliefs of classical as well as instrumental conditioning that focuses on behaviour and not just the thoughts. A suggestion that combines these two is believed to be Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. I found a website that further explains these approaches: The psycho dynamic approach is a form of depth psychology, the objective of this technique for the psychotherapist is to open up the unconscious content of the mind in order to treat the psychic anxiety of the patient. Even though this method stems from the psychoanalysis it is a smaller amount comprehensive technique. The humanistic/existential approach associated with the conviction that human beings are alone in this world, for the reason of this belief is that a pe... ... middle of paper ... ...herapy.
An example would be making people feel guilty when they go against societies rules. Freud also did some dream analysis as he believe that dream people have are the wishes of their unconscious mind. Another main theorist in the Psychodynamic Approach is John Bowlby and his theory of attachment. John Bowlby was Psychoanalysis and he believed that mental health and behavioural problems could be linked to early childhood.
The different viewpoints psychologists have of personality led us to the multiple personality theories we know today. The psychoanalytic perspective is one psychological theory that revolves around the unconscious mind. This perspective emphasizes that personality development is largely unconscious, hidden, and unknown. Sigmund Freud, the most influential figure of the psychoanalytic theory, emphasized that personality develops through unconscious forces, biologically based drives of aggression and sex, and unavoidable conflicts in early childhood. The psychoanalytic theory of personality dictates that behavior stems from the experiences that are left in the unconscious mind.