III. Punishment is anything that decreases the chances of the behavior being repeated.
a. Examples of punishment are easy to find because we’re dealing with operant conditioning, punishment (and reinforcement) when apply decreases the chances of voluntary behavior.
b. For example, if you get a speeding ticket on the freeway, you will probably be less likely to speed in the near future.
c. Although punishment may be an effective way to stop a behavior immediately (such as when a child is about to do something that may cause him bodily harm), it has not been found to be an effective way of changing behaviors in the long run.
Problems with Punishment
1. In fact, punishment often does more harm than good. One problem with punishment is that it…show more content… Humanistic believe that we are all born with an innate drive to reach our potential as good, contributing persons to our society (contributing in whatever way suits our own strengths).
b. This theory is essentially an optimistic one that views human nature in the best possible light; it provides a stark contrast to the conflict-driven psychoanalytic theory and the environment-driven behaviorist theory.
Carl Rogers’s Self Theory
Fully functioning person is one who gets along well with others by conditional positive regard and genuinely caring about them. Carl Rogers believed that we reach this goal primarily by receiving unconditional positive regard, which helps us develop positive self-esteem.
1. Fulfilling one’s potential meant becoming a fully functioning person, or one who gets along well with others by offering unconditional positive regard and genuinely caring about them.
2. If a person receives unconditional positive regard, he will develop good self-esteem, which will enable him to treat other people with genuine concern and respect, even if their viewpoints differ from his own. Rogers believed that we are born with this potential inside us.
3. If our environment is a positive one, which fosters self-esteem, we will reach this potential and become fully…show more content… These needs may be satisfied by feeling connected with our family, close friends, people at work, a religious group, or any other group with whom we identify. Once these and the other lower order needs are met, we can then work on the fourth level of needs, our esteem needs.
4. Esteem needs are both the need to feel good about oneself (self-esteem) and the need to be respected by significant others. People meet these needs to improve their self-esteem through working out, or by enrolling in college, yet still others might strive for better self-esteem by getting out of a negative job environment and into a better one.
5. Self-Actualization is the final level, when formidable goals or all the other lower level of needs are met, we can then strive for self-actualization, or work toward reaching our potential in some way that is meaningful to us as individuals. Based on an individual’s values and interests self-actualization can take many forms. Such as being immersed in a career; achieving personal excellence in athletic or artistic pursuits; it could involve becoming fully developed and connected with family in certain roles such as father, a teacher or a doctor and so