7. Thorne, B. (1992) Carl Rogers, London: Sage. Wallis, J. H. (1973). Personal counselling: an introduction to relationship therapy.
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1. Introduction Personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that gives both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior (Feist & Feist, 2008). For centuries, philosophers, personality theorists and other thinkers have been trying to answer: what personalities are like, how personalities are developed, why different personalities are developed and how personalities can be changed (Pervin & Cervone, 2013). George A. Kelly, an American psychologist born in 1905 in Kansa, is one of those major contributors in the field of personality psychology (Warren, 1998). In this paper, I am writing to critically review George A. Kelly's perspective on personality.
Counselling skills and theory Hodder Arnold. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory Constable. Rogers, C. R. (1967). On becoming a person: A therapist's view of psychotherapy Constable Smith, V. (2012).
California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships. New York: McGraw Hill. Rogers, C. (1961).
The behaviour modification component of Behaviour Therapy utilises techniques founded in Skinner’s discovery of operant conditioning, such as reinforcement; to both encourage adaptive and extinguish maladaptive behaviours (Öst, 2008). Carl Rogers, a famous and historical psychologist believed in a more self-directed approach to counselling, encouraging empathy, genuineness and non-judgemental caring. This approach was aptly named Person Centered Therapy, its foundation relying heavily upon the Rogerian hypothesis of one’s self actualising tendency towards the realisation of their full potential (Raskin & Rogers, 2000). Despite the diametrically opposed nature of both theories, the integration and synthesis of the best attributes of both behavioural methods and person-centred values would lead to a more efficient and successful counselling experience, for both the psychologist and client. Using the Behavioural approach to therapy, guidance by the psychologist is very structured and direct.
Some have considered the ‘Bateson Project’ to be the birthplace of family therapy. Discuss whether this is a fair comment and outline other important influences in the birth and development of family therapy. Gregory Bateson’s study into psychotherapy and communication was fundamental in the development of family therapies. Bateson, an English anthropologist, setup the collaborative study intending on uncovering different styles and levels of communication using a psychotherapeutic framework. His team, consisting of; John Weakland a chemical engineer turned anthropologist, Jay Haley who went on to develop the finding of the study toward brief family therapy and strategic therapy, Don Jackson a trained psychiatrist, and William Fry also a psychiatrist, uncovered a theory focusing on the development of schizophrenia as direct result of the families involvement.
McGraw-Hill: Boston. Funder, D.C. (1997). The Personality Puzzle. New York, NY: W W Norton & Co. Nye, D. Robert. (1996).
Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), p.36. Lord, R.G., De Vader, C.L. & Alliger, G.M., 1986. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), p.402.