Cardiovascular System

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The cardiovascular system, which consists of the heart and blood vessels, is the circulatory systems in our body. The major function of the system is transportation; the heart is the system pump and the blood vessels are the delivery routes. The heart transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances vital to the body’s homeostasis to and from the cells by using the blood as a medium. The heart is a cone-shaped organ approximately the size of a fist with an apex and a base. It is located within the mediastinum or medial cavity of the thorax. The heart is enclosed within a double walled pericardium, a fibroserous sac. The pericardium has a superficial fibrous pericardium and deep two-layer serous pericardium. The parietal layer lines the fibrous pericardium and; on the other hand, the visceral layer lines the surface of the heart. The pericardium protects and anchors the heart; prevents overfilling of blood; and helps to work in a friction-free environment. The wall of cardiac muscle is composed of myocardium which is the fibrous skeleton of the heart. This muscle is more elaborate and thicker in areas like around the valves and at the base of the great vessels that leaves the heart. The heart’s chamber is divided into two superior atria(atrium) and two inferior ventricles. Endocardium thin serous endothelial layer of inner myocardium lines each of the chambers. Each chamber is partitioned by Interatrial or interventricular septum which divides the heart longitudinally. Functionally, the atria are receiving chambers. Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood via superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus; and four pulmonary veins deliver oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium. The inferior ventricl... ... middle of paper ... ...://>. "Heart Attack." Collin College Library. Health and Wellness Resource Center. Web. 06 Mar. 2011. . Longe, Lori De Milto Jacqueline L. "Atherosclerosis." Collin College Library. Health and Wellness Center. Web. 06 Mar. 2011. . Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Heart Attack -" Mayo Clinic. Web. 06 Mar. 2011. .

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