“Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production.” Global Geobiochemical Cycles. 2003. Vol. 17, #2, 19-1 – 19-17. Warner, R. “Marine snow storms: assessing the environmental risks of ocean fertilization.” Carbons & Climate Law Review.
Ugolini, August 1987, "Arctic Pedogenesis: 1. Evidence for Contemporary Podzolization." Soil Science, 144, p.90-100. Schlichte, A.K., & F.C. Ugolini, May 4, 1973, "The Effect of Holocene Environmental Changes on Selected Western Washington Soils," Soil Science, 116, p.218-227.
Ocean acidification, which refers to the reduction of pH levels in the ocean is caused by an uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (NOAA) Ocean acidification alters the ocean’s chemical makeup creating a slightly more acidic pH level; this process has very severe consequences for not only ocean water but for the marine life that reside there. If current levels of carbon dioxide continue to follow trend than the ocean we know today could be reduced to an acidic pool to harsh for most ocean life as we know it. But even slight changes in the pH balance can have catastrophic effects on marine life. For example, only a .1 decrease in ocean pH has caused 10% of the Great Barrier Reef’s coral coverage to die off.
Further, transportation and the energy used to power mobility has not bode well for the planet. The transportation of goods and people will have a lasting impact on the planet. The scientific community agrees that burning fossil fuels — and thus the emittance of carbon dioxide and other effective greenhouse gasses (GHGs) — is what causes climate change. The energy used for transportation accounts for a large portion of all GHG emissions. Fossil fuels have begun to show signs of scarcity.
(2011). Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis. Global and Planetary Change. 77:85-96. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.03.004 Zhang J, Spitz YH, Steele M, Ashjian C, Campbell R, Berline L and Matrai P. (2010). Modeling the impact of declining sea ice on the Arctic marine planktonic ecosystem.
1995). Alterations in carbon cycling in these soils are of particular concern, since soils of northern ecosystems store from 350-455 Pg of carbon, or from 22.5 to 29.4% of the world soil carbon pool (Billings, 1987; Post, et al., 1990: Oechel and Vourlitis, 1993; qtd. in Lal et al.1995). This sink is an important part of the global carbon cycle; soil carbon losses from changes in land use account for 40% of the increase in atmospheric CO2 to date (Tinker and Ineson 1990). Smith and Shugart (1993) have projected that the vegetation/soil system will eventually become a carbon sink when global warming occurs.
The carbon dioxide slowly dissolves into the water; and the oceans provide a huge reservoir of carbon. ‘Across the world's oceans there is a continual cycle of equilibration of dissolved carbon dioxide in water with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere “. Carbon dioxide occurs in three main forms – Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate ions. As concentrations of carbon dioxide increase ,the carbonate ions become limited and oceans begin to uphold less co2 from the
INTRODUCTION The level of carbon dioxide has increased tremendously over the past few years by nearly 40%, that is from approximately 280ppm in preindustrial times to 384ppm in 2007(Solomon et.al 2007). Nearly one third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is being absorbed by the oceans today(Science Daily, May 24, 2008) . Uptake of carbon dioxide by the oceans is not a harmful phenomenon , but excess of it leads to a reduction in pH thereby altering the fundamental seawater chemistry, commonly known as ocean acidification . This rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide is mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as burniig of fossil fuels , chopping and burning down tropical forests for new agricultural lands and tourism purposes,etc. are taking place at large scales , thereby releasing enormous amounts of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere.The total human carbon dioxide emissions amounts to approximately 560 billion tons.
Millerd, F. (2005). The economic impact of climate change on canadian commercial navigation on the great lakes. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 30(4), 269. Scott Fields. (2005, ).
It is the result of about a third of the carbon dioxide in the air seeping into the earth’s oceans. Ocean Acidification Our ocean, consisting of approximately 70% water and 30% land, is a vast surplus habitat that is unexplored and uncontrollable. Although humanity has achieved much in advancement in technology, resources, food, and more, nature is a factor that humanity cannot predict and manipulate. Nevertheless, our society has caused a grand shift in our global climate, a shift that is costly to our environment. One major reason to account for this shift is the utilization of fossil fuels into the environment.