These proteins are then used as a blueprint for the function and structure of the organism. When the DNA is mutated, it alters the normal growth of the cells. This results in the cells not dying as they normally would, and a tumor may form; these tumors are commonly called "cancer" (www.cancer.gov). A tumor can be benign, which means it is not cancerous, or it can be malignant, which is cancerous. The tumor is comprised of abnormal cells.
Mutations in the cells that lead to certain forms of cancer, can be identified as inherited in some families. In most cases, however, it is difficult to identify a simple pattern of inheritance. There are two ways to regulate cell division. One way is with tumor suppressor genes, which usually function to inactivate or repress cell division. These genes or their products or both, must be inactivated sporadically for cell division of take place.
One advance has been the use of a cell process known as apoptosis. By harnessing this normal cell process, scientists hope to have found an effective way to combat cancer. Cancer is a disease that affects human somatic cells. It causes the cells to divide uncontrollably and form masses known as tumors. There are two different types of cancer tumors.
This causes the surviving cells to multiply and create a whole new colony resistant to that specific drug. Symptoms and Treatments. Cancer signs and symptoms are quite different and depend on where is the cancer located, how deep it has spread, and what is size of the tumor is. Some cancers can be either felt or seen through the skin , such as, a lump on the external lining can be an indicator of cancer in those locations. Other cancer types have signs that have a less physical appearance.
The first step involves the patient receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation, which kill the diseased cells. This “conditions” the area (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2014). Next, healthy stem cells are infused into this conditioned area. “These transplanted stem cells will begin to grow and produce healthy red and white blood cells and platelets” (Dana-Farber Can... ... middle of paper ... ...l Studies. PLOS Biology:.
If B-cell and T- cell are identified under a microscope then it is Non- Hodgkin lymphoma. If Reed - Sternberg cell is present then it is Hodgkin lymphoma. There are different tools to diagnose these cancers and different options of treatments. One treatment that was approved by the FDA (food and drug administration ) seems to have greater success in the fight against Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Most Patients treated with only Chemotherapy will reach remission at some point but eventually will die.
Cancer and Gene Therapy Gene therapy is an experimental technique that allows doctors to insert a gene into a patient’s cell rather than using drugs or surgery. Gene therapy is a process of which defective or undesired genes in the body with “normal” genes. A vector is re-engineered to deliver the gene to a target cell. Then the gene is transferred to the cell’s nucleus and must be activated in order to function. The main focus of gene therapy is to replace a lost or improper gene with a new functional copy into a vector that is inserted into the subject’s genome by way of penetrating its DNA.
Invasion assays such as a wound healing assay can be used to measure changes in metastatic potential. E. Relevance: Microtubules have long been targeted for treatment of primary tumors in breast cancer with paclitaxel and similar drugs that stabilize microtubules during mitosis and prevent cell division. However, these microtubule disrupting drugs have not been shown to be effective in the prevention of metastasis. By elucidating the mechanism by which aberrant microtubule nucleation occurs and the proteins involved, new molecular markers can be revealed to create new therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.
Gene therapy is a relatively new form of treatment, one that is still being experimented and researched. It is the use of genes to treat diseases by inserting them into cells either to replace a mutated gene, to inactivate a mutated gene, or to fight against the disease. (Genetics Home Reference, 2014) As with any medical treatment, the advantages should be weighed against the disadvantages before going through with it. There are two types of gene therapy: somatic gene therapy and germ line therapy. Somatic gene therapy is when the body cells, excluding the reproductive cells, are altered.
Cancer-promoting mutations can be identified in a variety of ways. They can be cloned and studied to learn how they can be controlled. Several methods such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have been used to treat cancers. The cancer patients who are not helped by these therapies may be treated by gene therapy. Gene therapy is the insertion of a functional gene into the cells of a patient to correct an inborn error of metabolism, to alter or repair an acquired genetic abnormality, and to provide a new function to a cell.