Cancer Essay

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Cancer Overview
Cancer is one of the primary causes of death worldwide, and one of the two largest groupings of diseases in the Western world, with the other being cardiovascular diseases (Teunissen, et al., 2007). Globally, one out of every eight deaths is cancer related, but what does this truly mean? Cancer is a term used to describe the diseases that involve the uncontrolled division of cells, also known as neoplasms, which typically originate from a larger mass of cells, referred to as a tumor; these cells later spread to other tissues and organs, increasing the spread of the disease. The cells infiltrate adjoining bodily tissues, disrupting their primary functions; these cells may also become detached from their main origin site, traveling by blood and lymph to sites far removed from the original tumor location, forming fresh colonies in a process referred to as metastasis or secondary growth (Stratton, Campbell, & Futreal, 2009). Each type of cancer is classified based on the cell or tissue that was initially infected within the patient’s body; consequently, there are over 100 different types of cancer, presenting major challenges for scientific research. The disease originates from the mutation of a single normal cell, causing it to invade the surrounding tissue, replicating and spreading throughout the host body. The original cell’s location within the body is known as the primary site in the cancer diagnosis (Klein, 2008). Cancer may be classified as either benign, or malignant, and may take up to 20 years to develop in some cases, causing numerous events, mutations, and even genetic alterations to occur within the host body (Dixon & Kopras, 2004).
Types of Cancer
Cancer may be classified into a variety of different g...

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... regarding the potential role of CTAs in tumors and germline tissues is still lacking; however studies have determined that CTA expression does have the potential to contribute in tumorigenesis. Studies have established that the attachment of a SKI interacting protein, or SKIP, a transcriptional regulator with the MAGE-A1 protein, plays a critical role in a wide range of signaling pathways, including the NOTCH1 pathway, and that the MAGE-A1 protein’s role in the neutralization of the NOTCH1-1C transactivation through the recruiting of HDAC1 and the subsequent SKIP binding has been determined (Laduron, et al., 2004). The MAGE-A1 protein, as a result, is able to be identified as a repressor of transcription (Laduron, et al., 2004), information that must be seen as comprehensive, especially when comparing this knowledge to our overall understanding of CTA expression.

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