The most notable example of reproductive cloning was dolly the sheep. Another type of reproduction is “recombinant DNA technology,” or “gene cloning.” To clone a gene, a DNA fragment containing the desired gene must be obtained from the chromosomal DNA using restriction enzymes and then united with a plasmid that has been cut with the same restriction enzymes. When the fragment of chromosomal DNA is joined with its cloning vector in the lab it is called a recombination DNA molecule (Paul Lauritzen, Cloning). The most controversial type of cloning is therapeutic cloning. The goal of this process is not to create cloned humans, but to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease.
(November 2004). New Approaches to Biomaterials Design. Nature Publishing Group 3. 745-747. Retrieved November 7, 2004 from PubMed database on the World Wide Web: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/utils/ lofref.fcgi?PrId=3094&uid=15516948&db=pubmed&url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat1249 Nylons (Polyamides) PA. (2003).
The simple act of cutting a plant and growing a new one from the original is an act of cloning. In the early 1950's scientists successfully cloned a tadpole (Zabel 4). To the average person the term cloning seems cut and dry as if there could only be one type. When in reality, to date there are three major types of cloning currently being tested, and experimented with. The first type of cloning known as molecular cloning concentrates on making identical copies of DNA molecules.
The first one is Molecular cloning, this focuses on when a DNA from an organism is transferred to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. In other words, a small piece of the DNA strand is removed and united with a plasmid which reproduces itself to create multiple copies of the same DNA code. This type of cloning is also called gene cloning. The second one is Organism cloning, and this involves making an identical copy of an entire organism and a good example would be Dolly the sheep. This type of cloning is also called reproductive cloning.
THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION How DNA replicates is quite a simple process. First, a DNA molecule is “unzipped”. In other words, it splits into two strands of DNA at one end of the DNA molecule. This separation will cause a formation of a replication fork. After the replication fork has been established the strands of DNA are ready for the next stage.
Recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning have been fundamental to our understanding of gene structure and function. Recombinant DNA refers to the creation of new combinations of DNA segments that are not found together in nature. The isolation and manipulation of genes allows for more precise genetic analysis as well as practical applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. An overview of recombinant dna technology is as follows: Isolate DNA /purifying DNA Cut with restriction enzymes Ligate into cloning vector transform recombinant DNA molecule into host cell each transformed cell will divide many times to form a colony of millions of cells, each of which carries the recombinant DNA molecule (DNA clone). There are several applications for genetic engineering in microbiology as well as other fields of biology.It includes invitro mutagenesis,gene synthesis, Expressing eukaryotic genes in bacteria,production of transgenic plants and animals,gene therapy,screening for genetic diseases and forensic analysis.
Landry, D.W. & Zucker, H.A. (2004, November) Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells [Electronic version]. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(9) pp1184-1186. Retrieved December 20, 2002, from http://www.jci.org EBSCO Prentice, D. (2003). Science and ethics: The intertwined debate on stem cells.
By natural breeding genes are passed down to offspring by the parents however, with new technology scientists are able to identify an individual gene and insert it into another organism which will then carry the trait of that gene. This alters the DNA. The extraction of the gene is done by physical and chemical methods The process of moving a gene from one molecule to another molecule is called cloning. In the cloning process a fragment of DNA, containing a gene is cloned into a vector where it is grown in large quantities and manipulated in a variety of ways. The most common vectors are bacterial plasmids but viruses and self-replicating units in eukaryotic cells are also employed as vectors.
[online] available: http://cac.psu.edu/ ~gsg109 / qs/ em01003.html. February/29/1996 Brush, Dr. P. "Ethical Concerns" Human Cloning and Re-Engineering. [online] available: http://cac.psu.edu/ ~gsg109/qs/em 01005.html. February/26/1996 "Can and Should We Clone Humans", [online] available: http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~mchorost/e306/cloning.htm. ] December/3/2000 Contran, R. "Cancer Resource Center" Welcome to the American cancer Society's Cancer Resource Center [online] available: http://www.cancer.org/cancerinfo/load_cont.asp?ct=1&doc=3&language=english March/24/2000 "Excite Health Center" Cancer [online] available: http://adam.excite.com/ info/?id=001289.
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